ÉKWÉ JỌNAL NKE NDỊ IGBO SCHOLARS FORUM, NIGERIA VOLUME 10; NO 1, OCTOBER, 2018

Mkpọaha na Nnọchiaha Na-enweghị Nnọso: Ụdịdị Na Ọnọdụ Ọdabere N'asụsụ Igbo

Comfort Nwuka Ezebuilo¹ & Christian Sopuruchi Aboh² Mahadum Naịjirịa, Nsụka, Steeti Enugu, Naịjirịa

Akwukwo a na-elebanye anya na mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso; ụdịdị na ọnọdụ ọdabere n'asụsụ Igbo site n'itule usorookwu na echiche/nghọta nke mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso, mwube mkpoolu na-enweghị nnọso, mwube ụbara na-enweghị nnọso; ụdịdị ọdabere na ọnọdụ ọdabere, ntụcha odabere Igbo na ọnọdụ ọdabere n'Igbo. E nwetara njatụle (data) n'akwụkwọ e dere ede na ụfọdụ ndị e nwetere n'ọwa ịntanetị. Usoro ntụcha bụ nchọcha nkọwa nke gbadoro ụkwụ na njatụle e ji n'aka. Mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso bụtụ ngalaba ọhụrụ n'amụmamụ usorookwu, nke na-arụtụ aka nye mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso (article) maọbụ nkwuso (determiner). N'asụsụ dịka Bekee, a na-eji aha nsina ngwaa na-enweghị nnọso naani na mwube pụrụ iche ma na-enwekwa nghọta pụrụ iche. N'eziokwu, ọnọdụ na nkọwa mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso n'asụsụ na-agbado ụkwụ na mkpụrụokwu ndị e ji arụ ọrụ. Akwụkwọ a gbadoro ụkwụ n'atụmatụ ngakọrịta ndịzu mma (Bidirectional Optimality Theory) nke Blutner tụpụtara iji kọwaa ihe kpatara ụdịdị ndị na-enweghị akara ji nwee nghọta na-enweghị akara. Ngakọrịta bụ ohere na-eme ka e nwee nzimozi n'ụzọ abụọ. Mkpọaha ndị nwere akara ka a na-akpọ mkpọaha ndị zuru oke ebe ndị na-enweghị akara ka a na-akpọ mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso. Nchọcha gosipụtara nnọchiaha Bekee n'izugbe na nkwuso anaghị anọkọrita, ebe ha nọkọrịtara, a na-enwekarị mgbanwe n'ọrụ nke nnọchiaha ahụ. Nchọcha gosiri na ọmụmụ ọdabere Igbo nwere ntụnye dị mma n'atụmatu sayensị asụsụ n'izugbe. Akwụkwọ a na-atụnye alo ka e mee nchocha n'ọdiniihu iji kọwamie isiokwu nke edemede a.

Ọkpụrụkpụ okwu: mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso, atụmatụ ngakọrịta ndịzu mma, ọdabere

This research looks at bare nouns and pronouns as well as the structures and positions of enclitics in the Igbo language. This is made possible by examining the syntax and semantics of bare nouns and pronouns, structures of singular bare nouns, structures of plural bare nouns; and the types and positions of enclitics in Igbo. Data for analysis were obtained from published texts and materials from the internet. Analysis was made based on the data at hand. Bare nouns and pronouns which simply mean nouns and pronouns withotu articles and determiners are relatively nwe in syntax. In langauges like English, bare nouns derived from verbs are used in special constructions and they have special meaning. The research hinges on Bidirectional Optimality Theory propounded by Blutner to explain why unmarked constructions have unmarked meaning. Co-occurrence paves way for double interpretations. Marked nouns are called complete nouns while unmarked nouns are called bare nouns. The research highlights that generally, English pronouns and the determiners do not co-occur. In cases where they do, there is a change in the function of such pronouns. The paper finds otu that there is a good prospect in the study of enclitics in linguistic theories in general. The research recommends that further studies should be carried otu so as to have a holistic invsestigation of the topic under discourse.

Keywords: bare nouns and pronouns, bidirectional optimality theory, enclitics

Mkpọlite

Lingwistiiks bụ mgbaso usoro sayensị n'amụmamụ asụsụ. Agbedo (2015) kọwara na lingwistiiks metụtara sayensị n'ihi na ọ gụnyere ọmụmụ n'ụzọ tọrọ atọ banyere ụdịdị, ọdịdị, nghọta, njiarụọrụ, mgbanwe na akụkọ ntolite nke asụsụ. E nwere ụfọdụ ogo nke amụmamụ asụsụ na-anọ arụ ọrụ: (i) ogo nke ụda (ekwurunọnụ), (ii) ogo ụdịdị na ndokọ nke e nwekwara ike ịkpọ ogo grama/usorookwu; na (iii) ogo echiche/nghọta. Ngalaba lingwistiiks nke na-ahụ maka ogo ndị a bụ: amụmamụ ụda na amụmamụ mkpụrụụdaasụsụ, amụmamụ mmebeokwu, amụmamụ usorookwu, na amụmechiche. Ka o sila dị, ọrụ a ga-agbasakwa ụkwụ na mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso; ụdịdị na ọnọdụ ọdabere n'asụsụ Igbo. Mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso bụ mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso maọbụ nkwụso. Ọdabere n'aka nke ọzọ bụ mkpụrụasụsụ/mọfịm ntado nke so n'otu n'ime nkejiasụsụ obere dịka nnọchiaha, nkwuso, njikọ, nnyemaka, akara njụmajụjụ, wdg (hụ Halpern 1995). Mbah na ndị ọzọ (2013:137) kọwara ọdabere dịka "okwu nwere ike ịkwụrụ onwe ya mana e gburu ya ịchafụ o wee dabere n'okwu ọzọ."

Ọmumụ usorookwu bidoro na mba Griik. Ndị fịlọsọfa Griik chọpụtara ma guzobe nkejiasụsụ asatọ a maara ama. Ya bụ, maka nka na ọgụgụ isi nke ndị ọkammụta Griik, Rom, nke welitere isi ka Griis dachara, gbadokwara ụkwụ n'usoro grama ndị Griik n'iwube ọmụmụ grama Latịn. N'ihi nke a, ọmụmụ Latịn nakwa n'ebe ọ dị ukwuu nkewa nke nkejiasụsụ sooro ụkpụrụ ndị Griik n'inwetekwa nkejiasụsụ asatọ. Asụsụ Bekee sokwaara ụkpụrụ ndị ọkammụta asụsụ Rom wee nwetekwa nkejiasụsụ asatọ nke a na-ahụ n'asụsụ Bekee.

Ọtụtụ mba dị n'Afrịka ka ndị ọcha chịrị. Naịjirịa, otu n'ime mba Afrịka a chịrị, ṅọmiiri ndị ọcha a n'ebe ọ dị ukwuu n'ihe gbasatara obibi ndụ mmadụ nke amụmamụ asụsụ na lingwistiiks so n'ime ha. "Ndị Briten chịrị Naịjirịa; ọ bụkwa ya kpatara amụmamụ asụsụ ama ala Naịjirịa dịka Igbo, Hausa, Yoruba, Tiv dịrị gawazie gbasoro usoro asụsụ Bekee" (hụ Mbah 2006:15).

Nkọwa a nọ n'elu mere ka anyị ghọta na e mebere amụmamụ asụsụ Igbo site n'iṅomi asụsụ Bekee. Ya bụ, asụsụ Igbo wepụtakwara nkejiasụsụ asatọ nke e nwere ike ịkpọ nkenụdị mkpụrụokwu. Nkenụdị ndị a bụ: mkpọaha, nnọchiaha, ngwaa, nkwuwa, mbuụzọ, njikọ, nkọwaaha na ntimkpu.

Usorookwu bụ otu n'ime ngalaba gbara ọkpụrụkpụ na lingwistiiks. Ọ bụ ngalaba lingwistiiks nke na-ahụ maka etu mkpụrụokwu na-esi anọkọta ọnụ iji mebe ahịrịokwu na ewumewu ndị ọzọ ndị dịwagara iche n'amụmamụ mmebeokwu nke na-elebanye anya etu e si emebe mkpụrụokwu. Anagbogu, Mbah na Eme (2010) kwuru na usorookwu na-ahụ maka nhazi mkpụrụokwu n'ụzọ gara nke ọma iji nweta nkeji buru ibu dịka ahịrịokwu, nkebiahịrị nakwa ntụcha ewumewu ndị ahụ. Usorookwu na-agba mbọ ịhụ na mwube ndị ahụ nwere nghọta. N'ihi nke a, mgbe ụfọdụ; a na-akpọ usorookwu grama.

Otu ihe dị mma gbasara usorookwu bụ na ọ na-enyere ndị ọkachamara sayensị asụsụ aka n'ikewa asụsụ. Ọtụtụ asụsụ na-egosi myiri n'ụdị - isiahịrị, ngwaa, na nnara. Ịmaatụ:

1a) Bekee: SVO S V O

Obi /kick-PST/ a ball

Obi /kicked/ a ball

S /V/ O

I buy-PST a skirt

I bought a skirt

b) Ọ /bya-PST/ ụnyaahụ

Ọ byara ụnyaahụ

He/she came yesterday

c) Ada /ri-PST/ nri

Ada riri nri

Ada ate food

Myiri n'ụdị nrụaka/mọdịfaya na isi aha (head noun) bụkwa ihe e nwere ike ịgbado ụkwụ n'ikewa asụsụ.

2a) Bekee: This man The goat

Nrụaka isi aha nrụaka isi aha

b) Igbo Nwoke a Ewu ahụ

Isi aha nrụaka Isi aha nrụaka

Ntụcha na nkọwa ihe ndị a pụtara ihe n'asụsụ bụ ihe usorookwu na-ahụ maka ya. Usorookwu na-amụ maka "ewumewu ndịnịime nke ahịrịokwu." N'okpuru usorookwu ka e mebere iwu ndị a na-eji asụsụ ọbụla arụ ọrụ na-eso iji nweta "ewumewu ahịrịokwu a nabatara" buru ibu (Agbedo 2015).

Mkpọaha na nnọchiaha n'asụsụ Bekee na-enwe ụfọdụ ndịnọrụ (keesi) dị iche iche dịka ọrụ ha na-arụ si wee dị n'ahịrịokwu. Ha nwere ike ịbụ keisiahịrị maọbụ kenọmịnativ (nke pụtara na ha nwere ike ịnọ dịka isiahịrị nke nkebiokwu nnọrọonwe maọbụ ndabe), keonwunwe (nke pụtara na ha na-egosi onwunwe nke ihe ọzọ), maọbụ kennara (nke pụtara na ha na-arụ ọrụ dịka nnara emereme na nnara nke mbuụzọ). Ewezuga ọdịdị keonwunwe (nke a na-emebekarị site n'itinye rịkọm elu n'ihu akaraedemede s), mkpọaha anaghị agbanwe ọdịdị ndịnọru ha (ya bụ, ọdịdị kegrama) n'asụsụ Bekee. Ha nwere ike iwere ọdidị ndịnọrụ keisiahịrị maọbụ ọdịdị ndịnọrụ kennara, mana, ọdịdị kegrama ha na-adị ị etu ọ dị. Ọmụmaatụ:

3a) Obi killed the man

b) The man killed Obi

N'ọmụmaatụ dị n'elu, ọnọdụ keisiahịrị na kennara nke Obi weere agbanweghị ọrụ kegrama Obi dịka aha. Ihe a bụ otu n'ime obere ụzọ asụsụ Bekee ji dị mfe karịa asụsụ ndị ọzọ. Nnọchiaha n'aka nke ọzọ, na-agbanwe ọdịdị ya mgbe ha gbanwere ndịnọrụ; mgbanwe na-apụtakarị ihe n'etiti nnọchi onwe dịka:

4a) The man killed him

b) He killed the man

N'ọmụmaatụ ahịrịokwu ndị a dị n'elu, nnọchiaha him gbanwere ọdịdị ya bụrụzie he dịka ndịnọrụ ya si n'ọdịdị ndịnọrụ kennara bụrụzie ndịnọrụ keisiahịrị. Nke a bụ maka na ọ dabachaghị ikwu:

Him kiiled the man

Ọdịdị ndịnọrụ keisiahịrị

Ọdịdị ndịnọrụ kennara

Ọdịdi ndịnọrụ keonwunwe

Mkpoolu Ụbara

Mkpoolu Ụbara

Mkpoolu Ụbara

I We

Me Us

Mine, my Ours, our

You You

You You

Yours Yours, your

He/she/it They

Him/her/it them

His/her/hers/it Their,

Theirs

Nnọchiaha bụ mkpụrụokwu (me, they, she, it that) ndị e ji anọchi nkebiaha, na-arụtụkarị aka n'ihe a mabuuru. Ịmaatụ: he likes himself, this is it (Yule 2002).

Nchọpụta gosiri na e nwere mkpọaha nwere akara na ndị enweghị akara n'ụfọdụ asụsụ. Mkpọaha ndị nwere akara, nke a na-akpọ mgbe ụfọdụ 'mkpọaha mzuruoke' maọbụ 'nwere nnọso' bụ mkpọaha ndị nwere nnọso na nkwuso dịka; otu igwe, otu oroma, mkpara ahụ, ngwaahịa ahụ, klaasị ahụ, osimiri ahụ, nwata nwaanyị ahụ, elekere mgbaaka ahụ wdg. N'aka nke ọzọ, mkpọaha na-enweghị akara bụ mkpọaha ndị na-enweghị nnọso maọbụ nkwuso. A na-ejikarị ha arụ ọrụ na mwube pụrụ iche nke nghọta pụrụ iche. Ọmụmaatụ:

I went to the Emekas'

A ma ahaaka maka ọdịdị enweghị nnọso ha (ya bụ, ha anaghị enwe nnọso maọbụ nkwuso). N'ebe ha nwere, ha na-eweta nghọta pụrụ iche. N'ahịrịokwu nọ n'elu, ahaaka Emeka nọ n'azụ nkwuso nke mere ka nghọta ya pụọ iche. Emekas' n'ebe a pụtara ezinaụlọ Emeka ha.

Site na nkọwa nnọchiaha e nyerela, ha bụ mkpụrụokwu nke e ji anọchi anya mkpọaha ha na-anọchite anya. N'ụdị a, ha nwere ohere ịnọ ebe mkpọaha ha na-anọchite anya nọ. Ya bụ, nkọwa ọbụla anyị na-enye mkpọaha metụtara nnọchiaha n'otu ụzọ maọbụ ụzọ ọzọ. Na-adị ịghịkwa ka mkpọaha, nnọchịaha so na nkenụdị ntachi (ya bụ, a ma ole ha dị). Dịka e kwuru na mbụ, mkpọaha anaghị agbanwe ọdịdị ndịnọrụ ha n'asụsụ Bekee ewezuga ụdịdị ndịnọrụ keonwunwe dịka: Obi's, Mary's, frogs', doctors' wdg. Nnọchiaha na-agbanwe ọdịdị ma ha gbanwee ndịnọrụ. Ọmụmaatụ:

5a) I killed the goat

b) The goat was killed by me.

N'ebe a, nnọchiaha I na (a) n'ọnọdụ keisiahịrị gbanwere ọdịdị ya n'ọnọdụ kennara n'ahịrịokwu nke abụọ maka na ndịnọrụ ya gbanwere.

Nchọpụta nke nchọcha a ga-abara amụmamụ usorookwu uru n'izugbe ma ọkachasị mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso; ụdịdị na ọnọdụ ọdabere n'asụsụ Igbo. Ụfọdụ ndị ọmụmụ edeela ihe na mkpọaha nzuruoke n'asụsụ Bekee nakwa ọnọdụ ọdabere n'asụsụ Igbo na-elebanyeghị anya na nwanne ya na-enweghị nnọsọ: ya bụ na-emeghị nchọcha n'ọdabere ihu na ọdabere nkenụdị ndị ọzọ. Site na nke a, enweghị ezigbo akaebe gbara ọkpụrukpụ igosi na elebanyela isiokwu a anya nke ọma. Ọ bụ n'ihi nke a ka ndị nchọcha ji wee hụta ya ka ihe dị mma ilebanye anya n'isiokwu a. Etu ọ dị, nhịahụ nchọcha bụ enweghị oge. Anyị enweghị ike inyocha isiokwu a etu a chọrọ. Ya bụ, a na-atụ anya na a ga-emekwu nchọcha iji wee kọwamie mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso; ụdịdị na ọnọdụ ọdabere n'asụsụ Igbo.

E kewara akwụkwọ a ụzọ anọ. Nke mbụ bụ mkpọlite, nke nyere ntọala n'izugbe gbasara akwụkwọ na nhazi ya. Nkebi nke abụọ bụ ebe atụlegharịrị agụmagụ ndị yitere isiokwu. Nke atọ bụ ntụcha njatụle. Nke anọ bụ nchịkọta na mmechi.

Ntụlegharị agụmagụ

Nkebi a nyere nchịkọta nchọcha emerela na mkpọaha n'izugbe. Ebumnuche ya bụ inye ọgụụ ntọala mkpọaha.

Ntọala keatụmatụ

E nwetere mkpọaha na mkpụrụokwu Latịn, 'Nomen' nke pụtara nnọọ 'aha.' Ya bụ, mkpọaha pụtara nnọọ aha. Ya bụ, ihe e jiri mara onye maọbụ ihe. Onye ọbụla maọbụ ihe dị n'ụwa a nwere ihe a na-akpọ ya maọbụ ihe e jiri mara ya, ne a na-abụkwa aha ihe ahụ maọbụ onye ahụ ozugbo. N'ịgbado ụkwụ na nkọwa a dị n'elu, Onah (2010:11) kọwara mkpọaha dịka aha a na-enye mmadụ, ebe, anụmamụ, ihe, njirimara, emereme na ihe e ji atụ ihe.

Mkpọaha dịka Yule (2002:88) si kwuo bụ mkpụrụokwu ndị ahụ e ji arụtụrụ mmadụ, ihe, ihe okike, ebe, njirimara, echiche na ebumnuche ahụghị anya dịka a ga-asị na ha bụ 'ihe' niile. Ụdịrị nkọwa a bara uru n'iwepụta ụdịdị dị iche iche mana o zuchaghị oke. Nke a bụ maka usoro dị iche nwere ike ilekwasa anya na nkejiasụsụ a. Ịmaatụ; e nwere ike ịkọwa mkpọaha dịka ọdịdị na-abịa n'azụ nnọso aha (the, a) ma nwekwaa mgbanwe maka onwunwe (-'s) na ụbara (-s). N'eziokwu, ọ bụghị aha niile (ọmụmaatụ; ozi, ụrọ) nwere njirimara ndị a (Yule, 2002).

Dịka Ukwuegbu, Idris, Okoro, Okebukola na Owokade (2002:77) si kọwaa, e nwere ike ịkọwa mkpọaha n'ụzọ abụọ.

Nkọwa A: Mkpọaha bụ mkpụrụokwu na-enye mmadụ (ọmụmaatụ: nwoke, Nkechi), anụmanụ (dịka nkịta), ebe (dịka Legọọsụ, ugbo), ihe (dịka mkpịsị ode), echiche (dịka nnwereonwe), mmereme (dịka mberede okporo ụzọ) maọbụ emume (dịka Ekeresimesi) aha.

Nkọwa B: Mkpọaha bụ mkpụrụokwu nwere njirimara anọ ndị a:

  • O nwere ike ịnọ n'ọnọdụ ihe maọbụ n'azụ ngwaa ozugbo n'ahịrịokwu. Ọmụmaatụ: (a) The ____ is good. (b) We saw a_____.
  • O nwere ngwụcha ụbara -s (maọbụ ọdịdị ọzọ pụtara 'karịrị otu') dịka: boys, churches, women wdg.
  • O nwere ọdịdị keonwunwe. Ọmụmaatụ: (a) Olu's book; (b) The girl's handbag
  • 'Akara aha' nwere ike ịnọ n'ihu aha dịka a, an, the, his, my, this, those, several, many. Ọmụmaatụ: a book, my pen, those apples, several students.

Nkọwa a gbasara aka ma kwekwa nghọta n'ọdịdị ya. Ọ bara uru n'ịchọpụta ọdịdị buru ibu. Ọ dabakwara adaba.

Nchọcha e merela banyere isiokwu

Mkpọaha n'asụsụ Bekee ka e kwuru na ọ na-egosi ndịnọrụ dịka ọrụ ya si dị n'ahịrịokwu. Ha nwere ike ịbụ Mkpọaha na nnọchiaha n'asụsụ Bekee na-enwe ụfọdụ ndịnọrụ (keesi) dị iche iche dịka ọrụ ha na-arụ si wee dị n'ahịrịokwu. Ha nwere ike ịbụ keisiahịrị maọbụ kenọmịnativ (nke pụtara na ha nwere ike ịnọ dịka isiahịrị nke nkebiokwu nnọrọonwe maọbụ ndabe), keonwunwe (nke pụtara na ha na-egosi onwunwe nke ihe ọzọ), maọbụ kennara (nke pụtara na ha na-arụ ọrụ dịka nnara emereme na nnara nke mbuụzọ). Ewezuga ọdịdị keonwunwe (nke a na-emebekarị site n'itinye rịkọm elu n'ihu akaraedemede s), mkpọaha anaghị agbanwe ọdịdị ha na Bekee (Ihe bụ otu n'ime obere ụzọ asụsụ Bekee ji dị mfe n'asụsụ ndị ọzọ). Nnọchiaha n'aka nke ha, na-agbanwe ọdịdị ma ha gbanwee ndịnọrụ; mgbanwe ndị a na-apụtakarị ihe na nnọchionwe.

Ọtụtụ mba Afrịka bụ ndị ọcha chịrị ṅomiri ndị ọcha a n'ihe gbasara obibi ndụ mmadụ nke amụmamụ asụsụ na lingwistiiks so na ha. Ndị ọcha chịrị Naịjirịa, n'ihi nke a, ọmụmụ asụsụ amaala Naịjirịa dịka Igbo, Hausa, Igala, Yoruba, Tiv wdg sooro ụkpụrụ asụsụ Bekee (hụ Mbah 2006:15).

E nwere ụzọ dị iche iche e nwere ike isi kewaa mkpọaha Igbo. Ụfọdụ n'ime ụzọ ndị a bụ: iji usoro keọkpụ, kemmebeokwu maọbụ ụzọ ụdaolu.

Usoro kemmebeokwu bụ ụzọ e si emebe mkpọaha n'ebe o metụtara nkejiokwu mebere mkpọaha ahụ. N'okpuru nkenụdị a, anyị nwere mkpọaha otu nkejiokwu nke bụ mkpọaha nwere nnọọ otu nkejiokwu. Ọmụmaatụ; chi, di, ji. Anyị nwekwara mkpọaha nkejiokwu abụọ, ndị gụnyere mkpọaha nwere nkejiokwu abụọ. Ọmụmaatụ; mbe, ncha wdg. E nwere mkpọaha ndị nwere nkejiokwu atọ. A na-akpọ ha kenkejiokwu atọ. Ọmụmaatụ: agbịsị, obodo wdg. Mkpọaha ndị nwere nkejiokwu karịrị atọ ka e kpokotara ọnụ iji mebe nkenụdị mkpọaha a na-akpọ mkpọaha nkejiokwu ukwu. Ọmụmaatụ: oketembe, ogologo wdg (Mbah 2006:15-16).

Usoro ụdaolu na-arụtụ aka etu e si eji ụdịrị ụdaolu ọdịdịchi mkpọaha wee na-ekewasị ha. Usoro keọkpụ bụ usoro nke na-agbado ụkwụ n'ọrụ, agụmọnụ, ọnọdụ na ogo a hụrụ anya wee na-ekewasị mkpọaha.

Na-adị ịghịkwa ka mkpọaha Igbo, mkpọaha na Bekee nwere nkenụdị abụọ. Na nkenụdị nke mbụ, anyị nwere ụdịrị aha dịka aha izugbe, aha aka, aha igwe, aha ọkpụrụkpụ na aha uche. N'okpuru nkenụdị nke abụọ, anyị nwere mkpọaha ngụtaọnụ na agụtaọnụ.

Ntụcha njatụle

Anyị ga-eji atụmatụ ngakọrịta ndịzu mma nke Blutner (2000) n'usorookwu ịkọwa ihe kpatara ọdịdị enweghị akara (enweghị nnọso) ji nwee nghọta na-enweghị akara (nkwekọrịta). Na ntụcha ọrụ a, anyị ga-ekwu maka mkpọaha 'nwere nnọso' na nke 'na-enweghị nnọso' otu oge iji wee kọwaa ma meek a o dokwuo anya ihe mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso pụtara. Atụmatụ e ji rụọ ọrụ bụ iji mee ka ihe a na-akọ doo anya. Agụmagụ/ederede ọhụrụ na mpụta nkwuso n'asụsụ mba ụwa gosiri na nnọso pụtara n'oge n'asụsụ ebe a na-ekpokọta ntinye nkwuso, dịka ọ dị n'Ịtalịan, Katalan, na Griik (Chierchia et al, Guasti na Gavarro 2003, Marinis in press).

Nnara na-enweghị nnọso

Ọnọdụ mkpọaha na-enweghị/nwere nnọso na-apụta n'ọnọdụ ọbụla n'asụsụ Bekee ma na-egosi enweghị nhatanha nke isiahịrị/nnara na Katalan na asụsụ Romansị ndị ọzọ. Anaghị anabata nkebiaha na-enweghị nnọso na Katalan. Ya mere, nkebiaha na-enweghị nnọso na-apụta naanị n'ọnọdụ mmachi (restricted co ndịtions) na Katalan: n'ọnọdụ ọchịchị, dịka nnara mbuụzọ na dịka nnara ngọm na dịka ngafe isiahịrị ngwaa nke nnara ekelesu (Chierchia 1998). Akụkụ kacha mkpa na nghọta mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso bụ agụmagụ nhanọha (jenerik) na agụmagụ ọdịdị ya bụ nghọta nsinweta. Ọ dị mkpa ịma na nnara na-enweghị nnọso na Katalan nakwa nnara na isiahịrị na-enweghị nnọso nwere otu ụdịrị agwara na Bekee. Ọmụmaatụ:

7a) Busco sabates

Look-for-is shoes

'I look for shoes' (nhanọha)

b) Busco les sabates

Look-for-is the shoes

'I look for the shoes' (kpọmkwem)

Usorookwu na amụmechiche nke mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso

Aha nsina ngwaa na-enweghị nnọso bụ nkebiaha nke na-enweghị nnọso maọbụ nkwuso. Achọpụtala na nnọchiaha Bekee niile na nkwuso anaghị agakọrịta. Nnọchiaha bụ mkpụrụokwu anyị na-eji anọcha aha/nkebiaha iji wee rụtụ aka nye mmadụ, ihe iji wee gbanarịa nkwunwo na-adị ịghị mkpa (Eyisi 2006). Ọ dị mma ikwu na ọrụ kacha mkpa nke nnọchiaha na-arụ n'ahịrịokwu bụ ịnọchi aha nke a kpọburu aha ka nkwunwo aha ndị a ghara ịgwụ ndị ọgụụ maọbụ ndị na-ege ntị ike. N'eziokwu, nnọchiaha Bekee na nkwuso anaghị anọkọta mana ebe ọbụla ha nọkọtara, a na-enwekarị mgbanwe n'ọrụ nnọchiaha ahụ. Ọmụmaatụ:

8) a she goat maọbụ a he cow

He maọbụ she nọ n'elu nwere ụdịrị nnọchiaha mana ọ na-arụ ọrụ ka nnọchiaha. Ka o sila dị, nnọchiaha ndị nọ na ndịnọrụ keonwunwe maọbụ jenetiv ga-arụnwu ọrụ dịka nkwuso: my, our, your, his, its, na their. Ọmụmaatụ:

9a) This is my book

b) That is her book

c) This is our nwe lecture hall, wdg.

Dịka o si dị, nnọchiaha na-arụ ọrụ dịka nkwuso na-anọkarị n'ihu mkpọaha. Ya bụ, a na-etinye ha n'ihu mkpọaha ịkọwa ha maọbụ igosi agwara ha.

N'asụsụ Igbo, ewezuga nnọchiaha nrụaka 'ndị' (those) dịka; 'Ndị ahụ bịara', nnọchiaha Igbo niile enweghị nnọso. Na nleruanya nke ọma, isi mkpọaha a na-anọ n'ihu nrụaka n'asụsụ Igbo: 'nwa a' (this child), 'ewu ahụ' (that goat). Na-adị ịghịkwa ka Bekee ebe nrụaka na-abịa n'ihu isi mkpọaha dịka: this man, the goat, that girl wdg.

Ọ bụrụ na anyị dowe ahaaka n'otu akụkụ, aha nsina ngwaa na-enweghị nnọso dị ụzọ abụọ: ụbara na-enweghị nnọso na mkpoolu na-enweghị nnọso. Achọpụtala na elebanyela anya n'ụbara na-enweghị nnọso ogologo oge, mana mkpoolu enweghị nnọso, dịka ọmụmaatụ ndị a, bụ ndị dọtara mmasị ndị ọkachamara sayensị asụsụ na nsonso a:

10a) John is in hospital (Nzimebe na-enweghị nnọso)

b) The way to use knife and fork (Njikọ na-enweghị nnọso)

c) Mary is chair of the department (Nnara na-enweghị nnọso)

d) He found door after door closed (Myịnabọ na-enweghị nnọso)

e) She is playing piano for the chair (Mkpokọta na-enweghị nnọso)

Na mwube ndị a nọ n'elu, mkpọaha mkpoolu ngụtaọnụ ka ya na nkwuso na-anọkọrịta dịka:

11a) John is in the hospital

b) Mary is the chair of the department

c) The way to use a knife and a fork

d) He found the door after the door closed

e) She is playing the piano for the chair, wdg.

Mwube ndị a anaghị apụta ihe naanị na Bekee, mana n'asụsụ ndị ọzọ ndị na-achọ mkpọaha mkpoolu ngụtaọnụ dịka hospital, knife, fork, piano, na door inwe nkwuso.

Ọ bụrụ na anyị tụlerịta mwube na-enweghị nnọso nan di nwere nnọso anyị ga-ahụ na aha nsina ngwaa na-enweghị nnọso nwere ọdịdị nkọwa 'nkwekọrịta' bara ụba. N'ịgbado ụkwụ n'ọmụmaatụ ndị a nọ n'elu, a ga-achọpụta na nkuso na-eweta ókè nye nghọta mkpọaha. Ọmụmaatụ ndị a nwere akara nwere nghọta dị iche maka na ha nwere akara (ya bụ, ha nwere nnọso), ya bụ ịrụtu ihe a na-ekwu maka ya aka kpọmkwem.

A chọpụtara na ọdịdị enweghị akara na nghọta enweghị akara na-agakọrịta ebe ọdịdị nwere akara na nghọta nwere akara na-agakọrita (ya bụ, obere ọdịdị - nghọta buru ibu). Mwube na-enweghị nnọso dịka ọ dị n'elu nwere nkọwa bara ụba maka asọmpi ya na nke nwere nnọso na-eweta ndapụta dizu mma nke bụ na dịka ọdịdị na-adị ịkwu obere, nghọta nkwekọrịta na-ebukwu ibu, mana ọ bụrụ na ọdịdị adịghị obere, nghọta nkwekọrịta anaghị adịkwa obere. Site na nke a, atụmatụ ngakọrịta ndịzu mma na-enye aka ighọta ihe kpatara e nwee obere ọdịdị, enwee nghọta buru ibu.

Mwube mkpoolu na-enweghị nnọso

Aha nsina ngwaa na-enweghị nnọo anyị nwere mmasị na ha nwere otu ụdịrị mwube (okwu nke anyị ji ebe a nghọta nkọwa). Anyị ga-eji okwu dị mfe wee rụtụrụ ha aka: Nzimebe na-enweghị nnọso = [PN], njikọ na-enweghị nnọso = [N coord N], nnara na-enweghị nnọso = [kọpụla N], myịnabọ enweghị nnọso = [NPN], mkpokọta na-enweghị nnọso = [VN].

NB: N'ụzọ ọ dị mfe inwetanwu, ọtụtụ ọmụmaatụ ga-esi na Bekee, belụsọ asụsụ ndị ọzọ a kọwara mwube n'ụzọ kacha doo anya.

Etinyeghị nnọso aha na nkebimuụzọ bụ ihe a na-ahụta n'ọtụtụ asụsụ dị iche iche, ọkachasị na mbuụzọ ebe (Hemmelmann 1998, Stvan 1998; Baldwin et al 2006). Ọmụmaatụ bụ: in town, at sea, in church, otu of bed, on televisin, on tape, off stage, in view, at lunch, on vacation etc.

Mwube nzimebe na-enweghị nnọso na mkpọaha na-agakọrịta ịrụtụ aka ohere (n'ebe buru ibu); ebe (obodo, osimiri), otu (ụlọ ụka, ụlọ akwụkwọ maọbụ akwa), mgbasa ozi (onyoonyo, teepu), frem (nkwago, nsiahụ) na oge (nri ehihie, akaọrụ). E nwere mmetụta abụọ kacha mkpa nke anyị nwere ike iji tụlee ndịiche dị n'etiti nzimebe na-enweghị nnọso na ndị nwere nnọso. Site n'ohere keotu, nzimebe na-enweghị nnọso na-enwekarị ihe Stvan (1998) kpọrọ, nghọta emereme (an activity sense) dịka:

13a) to be in prison 'to be a prison'

b) to be in the prison 'to be in the location designated by 'prison'

Ịnọ n'ụlọnga arụtụghị naanị akaebe a na-ahụ anya n'ụlọ mana isonye n'emereme nke ụlọ ahụ (njide).

Na njikọ na-enweghị nnọs, a na-ejikọ mkpọaha enweghị nnọso abụọ ọnụ:

14a) The cost of monitor, table and keyboard were included

b) He bought table and chairs for ₦600.00

Na myịnabọ na-enweghị nnọso, ngalaba ahịrịokwu na-enwe ngwaa nke na-enye nkọwa gbasara isingwaa dịka: John went home; Jane is the chair of the office.

Mwube ụbara na-enweghị nnọso

Agụmamgụ amụmechiche adọghaala n'ebe ọ dị ukwuu ọdịdị isiahịrị mkpoolu na-enweghị nnọso. Ha nwere nrụtụaka dị adị dịka nghọta nnara si dị. Site na njirimara nnara dịka 'Firemen are nice' (nhanọha), ụbara na-enweghị nnọso na-ewere otu ụdị nkọwa, na-arụtụ ngalaba ahụ aka n'ozuzuoke, ebe 'Firemen are available' (kpọmkwem) na-akọwa naanị na e nwere ụfọdụ ndị mmenyụ ọkụ nọ n'otu oge. Ọnọdụ nnara na-enweghị nnọso doro obere anya. Ọmụmaatụ:

15a) I ate carrots

b) I need shoes

ch) I need unicorns/flying cars, wdg.

Site na mgbatị ngwaa nọ na (a), ụbara enweghị nnọso dị adị: mpụtara ya bụ e nwere ụfọdụ karọt m tara. N'okpuru ngwaa ọchịchọ dịka ọ dị na (b); e nwere okwu dị adị: ọ ga-ekwe omume na nnara adịghị adị, dịka e si gosipụta na (ch).

Ya bụ, ọnọdụ na nkọwa mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso n'asụsụ na-adị abere na akọrọngwa mkpurụokwu dị adị. Ọnọdụ [+arg, +pred] nke ntụ na-eme ka mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso kwe omume na bekee, mana mkpụrụokwu a tụrụ aka na otu agwara maọbụ nke ọzọ na-anọkọrịta. Nke a na-eweta mmeso mkpụrụokwu tara akpụ maka ịkọwa ihe ga-apụta dịka mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso na Bekee: Naanị aha igwe nwere ike ịpụta n'ọnọdụ isiahịrị n'ọdịdị mkpoolu dịka ọdịdị: "Truth is rare," nakwa mkpọaha ngụtaọnụ ga-enweriri ụbara dịka 'Books are available.' Chierchia (1998) kwuru na ndịiche aha igwe/ngụtaọnụ bụ mkpụrụokwu nke onye: 'change vs coins' nwere otu ụdị nghọta mana ọ na-akpa agwa n'ụzọ dị iche iche. Ya bụ, a na-anabata aha igwe mkpoolu na Bekee. N'ịga n'ihu, a na-ewepụtakarị mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso dịka nhanọha ma hapụ ya ka ọ rụọ ọrụ echiche/nghọta dịka nnara maọbụ aha. Ọzọ kwa, nnabta nkwuso a hụrụ anya na-ewebilata agụmagụ ọdịdị na nnọso aha n'ọdịdị na-enweghị nnọso. Nchọpụta gosiri na mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso anaghị akwụnyere nke ọbụla n'ihe gbasara ndịiche kpọmkwem/nhanọha.

Ihe usorookwu na-achọ maka mkpọaha njikọ na-enweghị nnọso e depụtara na Dayal (2003) maka igosipụta mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso maka mba dịka Hi ndị, Turkish na Mongolian gụnyere:

  • Enwghị nkwuso nakwa nhanọha NP
  • Enweghị akara ndịnọrụ (ya bụ, ọ naghị arụtụrụ nkenụdị ọbụla aka kpọmkwem)
  • Enweghị nsonazụ keonwunwe
  • Enweghị ọnọdụ keazụ
  • Ọnọdụ nganihu ngwaa ozugbo
  • Mgbanwe na-ekwe omume naanị n'ọnọdụ a chọrọ

Na mgbakwunye n'ihe usorookwu na-achọ, Dayal (2003) chịkọtara ụfọdụ ihe amụmechiche chọrọ maka ịkọwa mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso dịka nkebiaha e kpokọtara ekpokọta. Ha gụnyere:

  • ọnụọgụgụ nnọpụ iche (ya bụ enweghị ọnụọgụgụ)
  • obere ókè
  • [N + V] na-emebe nnara ọgwa/mgbagwo
  • Obere odidoanya n'ụbụbọ (ya bụ, iji asụsụ na mwube na-enweghị nnọso adịghọ mfe ịghọta).

Ụdịdị ọdabere

Ọdabere bụ mkpụrụasụsụ/mọfịm ntado nke so n'otu n'ime nkejiasụsụ nka dịka nnọchiaha, njikọ, nkwuso, nnyemaka, akara njụajụjụ, wdg (hụ Halpern 1995; gawazie). Ọdabere enweghị nnwereonwe keụda maọbụ keusorookwu kama, ha na-adị abere n'úkwù ha (ya bụ, mkpụrụokwu). E nwere nkenụdị ọdabere abụọ. Ha bụ: ọdabere azụ na ọdabere ihu. Mgbe mkpụrụokwu ha nọ na ya bu ha ụzọ, a na-akpọ ha ọdabere azụ, mana mgbe ha bịara n'ihu mkpụrụokwu ahụ, a na-akpọ ha ọdabere ihu. Ọmụmaatụ:

16a) Joy's box

b) L'enfant noir (Fụrenchị)

c) The black child

N'ọmụmaatụ ndị a nọ n'elu, 's' nọ na (Joy) bụ ọdabere azụ maka na ọ bịara n'azụ mkpụrụokwu, ebe na (L'enfant) nnọso aha 'le' bịara bụrụ 'l' site n'ịgbado ụkwụ na grama Fụrenchị. Na Fụrenchị, ụdaume anaghị agakọrịta. 'L' bụ ọdabere ihu ebe ọ bụ na ọ nọ n'ukwu mkpụrụokwu, a na-enweta ọdabere azụ. E nwere ike igosipụta usoro a site n'akara a:

Eserese 2(a) ỌDABERE + MKPỤRỤOKWU ỌDABERE IHU + ÚKWÙ

(b) MKPỤRỤOKWU + ỌDABERE ÚKWÙ + ỌDABERE AZỤ

Ọmụmaatụ:

17(a) le amour l'amour

The love the love

ỌDABERE + MKPỤRỤOKWU ỌDABERE IHU + MKPỤRỤOKWU

MKPỤRỤOKWU + ỌDABERE ÚKWÙ + ỌDABERE

Obi + 's Obi's

N'agbanyeghị mkewa ọdabere ihu na nke azụ, e kewakwuru ọdabere n'ụzọ mfe na mpụrụiche. Ọdabere mfe bụ ịchafụ ọdịdị nke mkpurụokwu zuru oke nke na-anọkwa n'ọnọdụ keusorookwu nke mkpụrụokwu ọ na-anọchi na-anọ. Ọmụmaatụ:

18 They've gone

've bụ ịchafụ ọdịdị have. N'otu aka ahụ kwa, na

19 We'll come or go

'll bụ ịchafụ ọdịdị will. Ma (18) na (19) nwere ọmụmaatụ ndabere mfe. Ya bụ, anyị nwere ike ịkọwa odabere mfe dịka "ịchafụ odịdị nke mkpụrụokwu kwụụrụ onwe ya" (Katamba 1995:240).

N'aka nke ọzọ, ọdabere mpụrụiche bụ ọdịdị ndị nwere ike ịpụta naanị ka mọfịm ntado a gbakwunyere n'ukwu n'ụfọdụ ọnọdụ keusorookwu/ọdabere mpụrụiche dị iche na mgbanwe/inflekshọn. Otu njirimara dị mkpa e ji ewta ndịiche dị n'etiti ọdabere mpụrụiche na mgbanwe bụ ikike o nwere ịrụ ọrụ dịka mgbanabọ (dual citizenship). Nke a pụtara na "ọdabere bụ onye otu nke ọzọ n'ọdịdị." N'itinye ya n'ụzọ ozọ, ọdabere na-anọ ka nkeji mkpọnammebe. N'ihi nke a, ha nwere agwara nke na-eme ka ha dị iche n'ebe mgbakwunye na mkpụrụokwu dị.

Ọnọdụ ọdabere

Ọnodụ ọdabere na-adị ị n'agbanyeghị nghọta ụfodụ mwube. Ọmụmaatụ: the principal of school's car, ukwu keụda bụ school ebe ukwu keusorookwu/nghọta bụ nkebiaha niile nke principal bụ isi ya. N'agbanyeghị na ọ bụ principal na-abụghị school nwe car, agbakwunyeghị 's na principal. Ya mere, ihe a chọrọ bụ ịgbakwunye 's na mkpụrụokwu ikpeazụ nke nkebiaha keonwunwe. Ya bụ, e nwere ike inweta ọdabere mpụrụiche site na ntunye iwu pụrụ iche maọbụ site n'abụmonye otu nke nkeji ntachị/obere. Nchọpụta gosiri na e nwere ọnọdụ ọdabere anọ nke na-enweghị mgbagha ọbụla si n'aka Anderson (1995). Ha gụnyere:

  1. N'ọnọdụ mbido mkpụrụokwu
  2. N'ọnọdụ ngwụcha mkpụrụokwu
  3. Ọnọdụ nke abụọ n'ahịrịokwu
  4. Ọnọdụ osote nke ikpeazụ (ya bụ tupu nke ikpeazụ0 n'ahịrịokwu.

Ntụcha ọdabere Igbo

N'Igbo, a na-ahụ ọdabere mfe na nke mpụrụiche. Na mgbakwunyere ọtụtụ ọnọdụ ọdabere n'okwu, a ka nwere agwara dị mma ndị gụnyere nghọta pụrụ iche nke ọdabere na-eweta dịka:

20a) Nleda anya, ịkwa emo maọbụ iji ihe kpọrọ ihe. Ọmụmaatụ:

Ndị a kwu bụ kwu ụmụazị

Those who CL are CL children

'These are also children'

b) Nrụtụkwu aka: i) Ọ bụ lị Uche nyeli m ji

It is CL Uche gave me yam

'It is actually Uche that gave me yam'

ii) Fa bụ lịlị ndị ajọ mmadụ

They are CL those who bad people

'They must be really bad people'

Ọnọdụ ọdabere n'Igbo

Dịka Anderson (1995:200) si kwuo, "ọdabere dabeere nnọọ n'ukwu ha n'ụdị ụda." Etu ọ dị, ụfọdụ mwube nwere ọdabere n'asụsụ Igbo egosila na nke a abụghị eziokwu. E nwere ụfọdụ dabeere nwekwaa ndị na-adị abeghị. Ugbu a, egosipụtala na:

  • Ọdabere anaghịcha adabere n'ukwu ya n'ụdị ụda

21a) Kwuo nu okwu

IMP speak CL word

'Speak' (A na-agwa onye nke abụọ (ụbara)

b) Ada ga-abịa kwa daa

Ada FUT-come every day

'Ada will come daily'

ii. Ọ na-adị abere n'ukwu ya n'ụdị usorookwu na nghọta.

iii. Ndakọrịta ụdaume na-ewere ọnọdụ n'etiti ọdabere n'ukwu ya.

iv. Ọdabere anaghị apụta ihe naanị na mbido ahịrịokwu maọbụ n'ọnọdụ nke abụọ mana n'ọnọdụ ndị ọzọ n'ahịrịokwu.

22) Ọmụmaatụ: Onye zi ka m bụ zi

Who CL that me is CL

'Who am I then?'

  • Ọdabere ọyọ na-apụta ihe n'ụfọdụ olundị Igbo

23) Ọmụmaatụ: Ki nị zi bụ ife efu

What CL CL is thing that

'What is it?'

vi. Ọdabere ihu dị n'asụsụ Igbo

24) Anyị nọ n'ụlọ Obi

We are CL house Obi

'We are in Obi's house.'

Site n'ọnọdụ dị iche iche nke ọdabere n'asụsụ Igbo weere n'elu, a chọpụtara na ọdabere na-emetụta nghọta/echiche nke ahịrịokwu. Ọdabere ndị a nọ na tebụlụ dị ala bụ ndị a na-ahụ n'ọlụndị Igbo na Igbo izugbe.

Eserese 3.

S/N

ỤDỊDỊ

OKWU

ỌNỌDỤ

1.

Ọdabere ihu n'

In

Mbuụzọ na-abịa n'azụ ngwaa

Ga-

will/shall

Na-abịa n'ihu ngwaa tensị ndịnịihu

2.

Ọdabere azụ kwu

Also

N'azụ NP na n'azụ VP

Cha

in addition to

N'azụ NP na n'azụ VP, n'ụfọdụ ọmụmaatụ

All

Naanị n'azụ ngwaa; n'ụfọdụ

ọmụmaatụ n'azụ np naanị

Li

actually

N'azụ ngwaa

Lili

really

N'azụ ngwaa

Nwa

themselves

Nnọchiaha kentụkwasị. N'azụ NP

Ni

dummy

Na-eso akara ajụjụ

Ki

question marker

Na mbido ahịrịokwu

Zi

then

N'azụ ngwaa, 2P, na ngwụcha ahịrịokwu

Nu

you pl.

Akara onye nke abụọ (ụbara); n'azụ ngwaa

Nu

please, polite, request

N'azụ ngwaa, anaghịcha anọ n'azụ aha nsina ngwaa dị ka kwe nu

Nkwenye biko onye nke abụọ. M. ekene; Me ekele

Biko kwe m ekele

Fu

now

N'azụ aha nsina ngwaa

afụ

that

N'azụ aha nsina ngwaa

Kwe

dummy

N'azụ aha nsina ngwaa

Kwa

every; repetitive

N'azụ aha nsina ngwaa

Nchọpụta na Mmechi

Nchọcha e mere n'isiokwu nke akwụkwọ a egosila na e bu ụzọ akwụsị iwepu nnọso aha na Fụrenchị na Ịtalịan karịa na Bekee na Swidish nakwa na Katalan tupu na Dọọchị (Dutch). A chọpụtara na n'asusụ dịka Bekee, a na-eji aha nsina ngwaa na-enweghị nnọso arụ ọrụ na mwube pụrụ iche, ha na-ejikwa nghọta pụrụ iche abịa. Ọzọ kwa, etinyeghị nnọso aha na nkebi mbuụzọ bụ ihe dị n'ọtutụ asụsụ ọkachasị na mbuụzọ nzimebe.

Mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso ga-abụrịrị ihe dịka ụbara maọbụ mkpoolu igwe maka asụsụ dịka Bekee. A chọpụtakwara na nnọchiaha na-akpa ụdịrị akparamagwa mkpọaha ha na-anọchite anya ha na-akpa. Mkpọaha na nnọchiaha anaghị enwe nnọso n'ọdịdị nkịtị ha. Ọ bụrụ na o nwere, ya na ntụ okwu n'asụsụ Igbo ga-agakọrịta.

Mkpọaha na-enweghị nnọso ga-arụnwu ọrụ dịka nghọta aha na Chinese. Agụmagụ nsonso na mpụta nkwuso n'asusụ mba ụwa gosiri na nkwuso pụtara n'oge n'asụsụ ebe ntinye nkwuso nọ n'izugbe, dịka o si dị n'Ịtalịan, Katalan na Griik. Nnara na-enweghị nnọso na Katalan na isiahịrị na nnara na-enweghị nnọso Bekee na-enwekọta otu agwara. Nchọpụta gosiri na ọdabere anaghịcha adabere n'ukwu ya n'ụdị ụda dịka e kwuburu na mbụ, e gosiri ọtụtụ ọnọdụ ọdabere na-ewe n'asụsụ Igbo. A chọpụtakwara na ọnụnọ ọdabere na-emetụta nghọta ahịrịokwu. Ntinye/ọnọdụ ọdabere na-adị ị n'agbanyeghị nghọta ụfọdụ mwube.

Anyị na-emechi site n'ikwu na ebumnuche akwụkwọ a, nke bụ, ilebanye anya na mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso na ụfodụ ọmụmaatụ mwube ụbara na-enweghị nnọso pụtara n'asụsụ. Akwụkwọ a lebakwara anya n'ụdịdị na ọnọdụ ọdabere n'asụsụ Igbo. O doro anya n'Igbo nwere ntụnye dị mma ime n'atụmatụ sayensị asụsụ n'izugbe, ọkachasị n'ihe gbasara ọnọdụ ọdabere n'okwu na ndabere ụda. Anyi enweghị ike ime nchocha dizu mma banyere isiokwu n'ihi oge. Ya bụ, anyị na-atụnye alo ka e mee nchọcha n'ọdịnịihu iji kowamie mkpọaha na nnọchiaha na-enweghị nnọso, ụdịdị na ọnọdụ ọdabere n'asụsụ Igbo.

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