ÉKWÉ JỌNAL NKE NDỊ IGBO SCHOLARS FORUM, NIGERIA VOLUME 12; NO 2, JULY, 2019

Pronunciation Difficulties Among Idoma Native Speakers Of English Language

BY

Achadu, Peter Ada

achadu.peter@unn.edu.ng

Department of Linguistics, Igbo and Other Nigerian Languages, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

+2348068360547

Abstract

The study focuses on the pronunciation difficulties among Idoma native speakers of English language and how it affects communication processes. It provides information on why these problems naturally occur and the specific English phonemes that Idoma people find difficult to pronounce or articulate. Only segmental phonology is considered and the model for the study is Received Pronunciation (RP). Contrastive analysis approach was adopted by the researcher. Data were collected from the native speakers who were considered educated in order to discover the major areas of difficulty. Participant observation, oral interview and audio recorder were used as instruments of data collection for the study. Data were collected through observation of utterances of fifty native speakers, twenty-five males and twenty-five females from five local government areas in Benue State that speaks the Idoma language. The respondents were randomly selected, all with the ages ranging 26 - 50. Their speeches were recorded without them knowing. The data were transcribed phonemically based on the Received Pronunciation model. The result for the analysis shows that pronunciation difficulties arise because of first language phonological interference and problems inherent in the target language itself.

Keywords: Idoma, Pronunciation, Segmental Phonology, Language, Native Speakers.

Introduction

The English language is the best studied and mostly acclaimed language in the world. It is rule governed verbal behaviour that has attained the global proportion (Chitulu et al, 2015). Language popularly described as a medium or instrument of interaction among human beings. It is a systematically structured entity which exhibits the following structural components - phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics components (Roach, 2000: 2). Effective communication processes among users of the language must be achieved by maintaining the morphology, syntax, semantics and phonological ideals of the language (Jackson, 1956). Anything short of this will hinder the effective use of the language and strongly affect the competence and performance of the user. This obviously, will make mutual intelligibility difficult for all involved in the use of language. Worthy of note is that all aspects of language are important. However, the spoken word, where the sounds of language will be physically applied to bring out the correct lexical items and consequently form appropriate and grammatically acceptable syntactic structures is very important as it is the final part of the language use where which communication between hearer and speaker takes place. Misapplication of the rules governing the sound system of any language, particularly, the English language will negate the very essence of communication and mutual intelligibility (Schane, 1973). This misappropriation is the root of pronunciation difficulties among Idoma native speakers that use English language. This paper x-rays the causes of pronunciation difficulties among Idoma native speakers of English language and its effects on communication processes.

The Idoma people speak the Idoma language which is an African language classified under the Niger - Kordofamian family. According to Encyclopedia Britammica (2012), the languages of the present days Niger-Congo are divided into nine major branches: Mande, Kordofanian, Atlantic, Ijoid, Kur, Gur, Adamawa, Ubanji Kwand Benue - Congo. Yusuf (2010) further classifies the Idoma language as Bantoid which falls under the Benue-Congo sub division along with other languages such as Bamileke, Efik/Ibibio and Tiv. The Idoma language consist of - dialects which are distributed thus, according to Adejor (1977) some of the dialects in Idoma includes the two northern dialects of Agatu and Ochekwu, while Otukpo, Adoka, Oglewu and Onyagede speak the central dialect. The Western districts of Ichama, Okpoga, Orokam, Owukpa and Edumoga fall under the Idoma west dialect. In the southern districts, four out of the five that make up the district, speak Igumale dialect, the fifth district, Utomkon, has it distinct dialect called Ufia, just like Akpa in Otukpo that speaks Akweya. There is also Igede dialect in Oju and Obi.

Received Pronunciation

The term Received Pronunciation is usually credited to Daniel Jones, Simply means accepted or approved. Received Pronunciation is the standard accent of standard English in Great Britain, as spoken in the south of England. According to Carford (1979), in the first edition of the English Pronunciation Dictionary by Daniel Jones in 1917, he named that accent public school pronunciation. But in the second edition of his dictionary in 1926, he called the same accent received pronunciation. This is the model that is in use at the Oxford, Cambridge, and London Universities and it is the accent used by the BBC and most overseas personnel of the British Foreign Service (Chitulu, et al. 2015). It shows a great deal about the social and educational background of the person using the English language. A speaker using RP will definitely speak Standard English. Pronunciation refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. It includes attention to the particular sounds of a language (segments) aspect of speech beyond the level of the individual sound such as intonation, stress, timing, rhythm and in its broadest definition, attention to gestures and expressions that are closely related to way we speak a language (Roach, 2000).

Segmental phonology deals with the description and organization of speech sound in terms of consonants and vowels. According to Agbedo (2015: 55) consonant is a sound produced by an articulation involving some degree of constriction of the mouth passage while vowel is defined as the sound produced by the "aggressive airstream from the lung tissue into the oral cavity without any obstruction or constriction as would cause available friction characteristics of many consonants sounds".

The study sets out to investigate causes and effects of pronunciation, difficulties among Idoma native speakers of English language. These native speakers were asked to pronounced some list of English words thrice in order to determine their levels of proficiencies in pronunciation; all with ages ranging 26 - 50. The data were transcribed phonemically bearing in mind the Received Pronunciation RP Model.

The data were collected through participant observation, oral interview and audio recording from 50 respondents who were native speakers and considered as educated with relative degree of communicative competence in English, and randomly selected from Apa, Otukpo, Ogbadibo, Ado and Okpokwu local government areas of Benue State; comprise twenty-five males and twenty females respectively. This study is sets out to identify specific English phonemes that Idoma find difficult to pronounce and articulate and how they affect appropriate communication.

Literature Review

In order to provide a solid base for this study, this section is devoted to methodological and empirical review of related works done by scholars.

Methodological Studies

This section will focus on the methods of second language learning (L2).

Contrastive approach

. Fries (1945) points out that the most efficient materials are those that are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language. This means that the best way to carry out a Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis is to carefully describe the target and native language scientifically and compare both of them to achieve a better result.

This approach was propounded by Lado (1957). The theory has to do with the way languages are being compared in order to bring out the similarities which Lado (1957:7) sees as facilitators on potential factors that will enhance learning of target language and the differences as the difficulties L2 (second language) learner will encounter while learning a second language

The following are some of the criticisms leveled against contrastive analysis.

  • The processes of language acquisition is not sufficient to described by the characterization of errors.
  • Errors in L2 acquisition do not only arise from interference.
  • The structural differences between two languages are not sufficient to predict the occurrence of errors in L2 acquisition.
  • In its strongest formulation, the contrastive Analysis Hypothesis claimed that all the errors made in learning L2 could be attributed to "interference" by the L1. This claim was opposed by empirical evidence that was formulated in the mid and late 1970s which pointed out that many errors predicted by contrastive analysis were not observed in learners' language.
  • It is equally observed that some uniform errors were made by learners irrespective of their L­1 therefore, contrastive analysis is not capable of accounting for prediction of learning difficulties (Shaghi, 2014).

Error analysis approach

Error analysis in second language acquisition was established in the 1960s by Stephen Pit Corder. Error analyst like Corder is of the opinion that most of the learner's errors are produced by learners making faulty interferences about the rules of the target language. Error analyst distinguish between errors, which are systematic and mistakes, which are not. Errors can be classified according to the level of language: phonological errors, lexical errors, syntactic errors and so on. This approach does not go free of Skirmish, the following weaknesses were recorded against it.

  • It does not provide a complete access on how to acquire second language.
  • It only account for errors committed by the second language learners.
  • It fails to account for all areas in which learners can have difficulty.

Monitoring approach

This approach was propounded by Krashen (1970s). monitor theory shares a number of the assumptions of the universal grammar approach but its scope is specifically second language acquisition. As with UG, the assumption is that human beings acquire language without instruction or feedback on error. Krashen (1982) presented it in terms of five hypothesis. The fundamental hypothesis of monitor theory is that there is a difference between acquisition and learning. Acquisition is hypothesized to occur in a manner similar to L1 acquisition, that is, with learners focus on communicating messages and meanings: learning is described as a conscious process, one in which the learner's attention is directed to the rules and forms of the language. The monitor hypothesis suggest that, although spontaneous speech originates in the acquired system, what has been learned may be used as a monitor to edit speech if the L2 learner has the time and the inclination to focus on the accuracy of the message. In light of research showing that L2 learners, like L1 learners go through a series of predictable stages in their acquisition of linguistic features, Krashen (1982) proposed the natural order in hypothesis. The comprehensible input hypothesis reflects this view that L2 learning, like L1 learning, occurs as a result of exposure to meaningful and varied linguistic input. Linguistic input will be effective in changing the learner's developing competence if it is comprehensible (with the help of contextual information) and also offers exposure to language which is slightly more complex than that which the learner has already acquired. The affective filter hypothesis suggests, however, that a condition for successful acquisition is that the learner be monitored to learn the L2 and thus receptive to the comprehensible input.

Monitoring approach has been criticized for the vagueness of the hypotheses and for the fact that some of them are difficult to investigate in empirical studies (Dekeyser, 1997; Mclaughlin, 1990; White, 1987). Nonetheless, people still claimed its impact on the field of L2 teaching. Many teachers and students intuitively accept the distinction between learning and acquisition, recalling experiences of being unable to spontaneously use their L2 even though they had studied it in a classroom. This may be especially true in classrooms where the emphasis is on meta-linguistic knowledge (the ability to talk about the language) rather than on practice in using it communicatively.

Behavioural approach

For the much first half of the 20th C, behaviourism dominated psychology and education and consequently, theories of L2 learning and teaching. Behaviourism was based on the view that all learning - including language learning - occurs through a process of imitation, practice, reinforcement and habit formation. According to behaviourism, the environment is crucial not only because it is the source of the linguistic stimuli that learners need in order to form associations between the words they hear and the objects and events they represent, but also because it provides feedback on learners' performance. Behaviourists claimed that when learners correctly produce language that approximates what they are exposed to in the input, and these efforts receive positive reinforcement, habits are formed (Skinner, 1957).

Behaviourism was attacked when Chomsky (1968) questioned the notion that children learn their first language by repeating what they hear in the surrounding environment. He argued that children produce novel and creative utterances - ones that they would never have heard in their environment. Researchers asserted that children's creative use of language showed that they were not simply mimicking what they heard in the speech of others but, rather, applying rules and developing an underlying grammar following Chomsky's critique of behaviourist explanation for language acquisition and a number of studies of L1 acquisition, behaviourist interpretations of language acquisition fell into disfavor.

Interactionist Perspective approach

Some scholars who work primarily within a second language acquisition framework assume that a great deal of language learning takes place through social interaction, at least in part because interlocutors adjust their speech to make it more accessible to learners. Some of the L­2­ research in this framework is based on L1 research into children's interaction with their care givers and peers. L1 studies showed that children are often exposed to a specialized variety of speech which is tailored to their linguistic and cognitive abilities (that is, child directed speech) when native speakers engage in conversation with L­2­ learners, they may also adjust their language in ways intended to make it more comprehensible to the learner. Furthermore, when L2 learners interact with each other or with native speakers they use a variety of interaction techniques and adjustments in their efforts to negotiate meaning. These adjustments include modifications and simplifications in all aspects of language, including, phonology, vocabulary, syntax and discourage (Long, 1985).

Empirical Studies

A lot of researches have been carried out on this topic. Chitulu et al (2015) conducted a research on poor English pronunciation among Nigerian ESL students; the ICT solution. They examined the causes of poor English pronunciation, problems associated with Nigerian ESL students, and the ability of the digital age approach to pronunciation problems. Also, they discusses the various digital age techniques used to combat poor English pronunciation among Nigerian students, and the wonderful input this can give to linguistic pedagogy in the area of spoken English.

Rehman et al (2012) studied English problematic consonants for Pashto speakers. The study identifies that five English consonants are problematic for Pashto speakers. These consonants includes: /f/, /v/, / /, /θ/, /Ʒ/, it also assesses the role of L1 in the pronunciation of the target English consonant. The stud further shows that these consonants are replaced by L1 sound 1). English Labio-dental fricative /f, v/ are pronounced as bilabial voiceless stop /p/ and bilabial approximant /w/ 2) English dental fricatives /θ, ð/ are replaced by dental stops /t, d/; 3) palatal voiced fricative /Ʒ/ is replaced by palate-alveolar voiced affricate /dƷ/. It is suggested that English learners with Pashto background should be properly trained to acquire correct English pronunciation.

Adam (1991) researched on mispronunciation among Jukun (Wapan) speakers of English. Finding of the study showed that a lot of English words are in appropriately pronounced; there is deviation from the model (Rp) as certain peculiar rules or certain phonological features of words have not been learned. Again, the (Wapan) speakers of English tend to make the centering vowel /ǝ/ more open. The phoneme is realized as /ą/. There is also the introduction of an epenthetic element /ǝʊ/ between the voiced alveolar plosive /t/ and the voiced alveolar trill /r/. Hence, Jowit (1991) commenting on the phonology of Nigerian English observes, that we find some of the centering vowels or diphthongs terminating in the centre having more features than we have in (Rp).

Yet, Agbedo (2015) in his study of central vowel in Efik find out that part of the learning difficulties faced by Efik English difficulties faced by Efik English learners are recognition of these English phonemes /ʌ, ǝ, ɜ:/, and the problem of distinguishing /ʌ/, /ǝ/, /ɜ:/ from /Ͻ/, /ą/ and /ƹ/ because they are equivalent of the former set of sounds. Although, the empirical studies reviewed have something do with the pronunciation difficulties, their dimensions are quite different from this study.

Summary of Literature Review

The review of related theories to language acquisition is meant to account for the working of the human mind and all use metaphors to represent this invisible reality (Schmitt, 2002). Theorists can draw some of their evidence from neurological research that taps language processing more directly. In general, however, second language acquisition theories must be based on other kinds of evidence primarily the language which L2 learners produce, understand and judge to be appropriate or grammatical. The empirical reviewed on pronunciation shows that the speech of non-native English speakers may exhibit pronunciation difficulties as a result of L1 acquired by reason of linguistic interference. These are carried out in other languages hence, the reason for this paper.

Framework

Contrastive Analysis (CA) is the base on which this paper is anchored. This approach was propounded in (1957) by Lado. Lado explains that contrastive analysis is comparative study of two or more languages to show their similarities and differences to generate prediction about the areas of learning difficulty in the target language (L2) which speaker of the source language (L1) are likely to come across. He (Lado) initiated the procedural measures for the contrastive study of languages. These include description of the languages, comparison of the languages and predicting learning difficulties.

CA was extensively used in the field of second language acquisition in the 1960s and 1970s as a means of explaining why some features of a target language were difficult to acquire than others. Agbedo (2015) opines that the contrastive analysis brings to light the differences between the mother tongue and the target language of the learners and so makes it possible to predict the difficulties that the learners will have. This in turn determines what the teacher has to teach. The results of the contrastive analysis are therefore built into language teaching materials, syllabuses, tests and researches.

Presentation of data and analysis

The following section gives the comparison of the vowel and consonantal charts of the two languages.

In the pronunciation of words in English, errors of pronunciation particularly those associated with spelling pronunciation, replacement of phonemes and diphthongs, sounds absent, environmental factors and ignorance were considered.

English Vowels

Source: Agbedo (2015: 139)

æ

ʌ

a:

ǝ

ɜ:

e

I

I:

ʊ

u:

Tongue

Close

Front

Centre

Back

Half close

Half open

Open

ͻ:

D:


Idoma Vowels.

I

i

ʊ

u

Close

Front Unrounded

Back rounded

Half close

Half open

Open

D:

ą

ϵ

o

ͻ

Adopted from Ameh (2002)

English Consonant Phonemes

Place →

Manner

Bilabial

Labio Dental

Dental

Alveolar

Plato-alveolar

Palatal

Velar

Glottal

Plosive

p b

t d

k g

Fricative

f v

θ ð

ʆ z

I Ʒ

h

Affricate

tʆ dƷ

Nasal

m

n

ƞ

Lateral

I

Tap

r

Approximate

W

j

Culled from Agbedo (2015:138)

Figure 4: Idoma consonant chart (adopted from Ameh, 2002)

Place →

Manner

Bilabial

Labio Dental

Alveolar

Post Alveolar

Palatal

Velar

Labio Velar

Glottal

Plosive

e b

t d

k g

kp gb kw gw

Fricative

f v

s z

H

Affricate

Lateral

l

Nasal

m

n

ƞ

ƞm ƞw

ny

Trill

r

Approximate

w

j

Causes of Mispronunciation among native Idoma speakers of English Langauge

Among Idoma people, we observed number of mispronunciations due to what is called spelling pronunciation. According to Roach (1983) spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling. In most Nigerian languages, leather (1996) observes that words are pronounced exactly as they are spelt. For instance the English word "house" in Idoma, written as ͻiẹ in Igbo ụlọ in Yoruba ile in Hausa gida. In each of these cases, the pronunciation follows the same pattern as the spelling. But English spelling in most cases is highly deceptive particularly to the foreign learner. This is because its orthography is not always a guide to its pronunciation. For instance, Catford et al. (1997) states that "threw" begins with only two consonants /θ, r/, they further adds that spelling is not a good guide in phonology.

Another causes of pronunciation difficulties among Idoma native speakers of English language is that there are sounds absent in Idoma language, but present in English orthography prove very difficult for the speakers to pronounced. Over the years, it has been discovered that some major causes of mother tongue interference among native speakers and speakers of English language are carry-overs from the initial language orthography, maybe from Idoma into English. Also, consonants not sounded in the mother, but present in the English poses threat for the speakers to pronounced. The speakers do not have those sounds in his repertoire or sound inventory. She/he will learn how to pronounce them. This certainly will be difficult according to Gimson; (1980), states that after early adolescence, it becomes increasingly difficult to acquire the pronunciation of a second language. Stevenson (1974) tells us that different psychologists agree that the best time to learn language is before puberty when achievement of childhood bilingualism is possible. For instance, these vowels are not found in the Idoma vowel chart /ʌ/, /ǝ/ and /ɜ:/. As a result, words like blood, gun, son, cup, gum could be mispronounced.

Word

Received Pronunciation

Idoma pronunciation

Blood

/biʌd/

/brͻd/

Gun

/gʌn/

/gͻn/

Son

/sʌn/

/sͻn/

Cup

/kʌp/

/kͻpu/

Gum

/gʌm/

/gͻm/

These consonant phonemes are also absent in the Idoma language, hence, they are wrongly pronounced /tʆ/, /dƷ/, /θ/ on /ð/

Word

Reviewed Pronunciation

Idoma pronunciation

Change

/tseintʆ/

/senƷ/

Church

/tsɜ:ts/

/sͻs/

Joke

/dƷǝʊk/

/jǝʊk/

Jump

/dƷʌmp/

/jͻmp/

It will not be easy for them to pronounce - when Idoma native speaker attempts to pronounce these words, he/she make mistakes. He will replace those sounds with the nearest sound to it in the sound inventory of his/her mother tongue. The above examples justify this assertion.

Also, the Idoma native speakers have difficulties in differentiating/I/ from /r/ when pronouncing them or (1) is pronounced /r/ and vice versa.

Word

Reviewed Pronunciation

Idoma pronunciation

Colour

/ˈkʌ/.ǝr/

/ˈkͻ.rͻ/

Liver

/ˈIiv.ǝr/

/ˈrivæ/

Around

/ˈǝrǝʊnd/

/ˈæ/ąʊnd/

Leader

/ ˈii:.dar/

/ˈri:dæ/

Love

/ˈlʌv/

/ˈrͻ:v/

Load

/lǝʊd/

/rod/

Road

/rǝʊd/

/lod/

Bread

/bred/

/bled/

Plumber

/ˈplʌmǝ/

/ˈprumba/

Moreover, pronunciation difficulty among Idoma native speakers of English language is the environmental factor. Most of the time, the environment in which they found themselves is usually linguistically illiterate. The environment does not care for the use of correct English grammar, how much more, correct pronunciation. English is carelessly spoken without considering its rulers. The place that they find themselves in has no regard for the use of Received Pronunciation. Different forms of Englishes are used by speakers: Pidgin English, American English, Carreabian English or Nigerian English etc due to this factor, the sensibilities of these Idoma native speakers of English are covered by these linguistic abnormalities.

Outright ignorance on the part of some Idoma native speakers of English language concerning the correct pronunciation of most English sounds and words have also led to the incidence of gross mispronunciation of very important English words with attendant results. The table below will justify this claim:

Word

Received Pronunciation

Idoma pronunciation

Power

/ˈpaʊǝ/

/ ˈpawa/

Often

/ˈDfǝn/

/ˈͻ:ftin/

Restaurant

/ˈrestǝrǝn/

/ˈrestͻ:rant/

Jamb

/ˈdƷæm/

/ˈjambu/

Coup

/ˈku:/

/ˈku:pu/

Burn

/ˈbɜ:n/

/ˈbͻƞ/

Comb

/ˈkǝʊm/

/ˈkoʊmb/

Christmas

/ˈkrismǝs/

/ˈkristmas/

Nurse

/ˈnɜ:s/

/ˈnͻ:s/

Doubt

/ˈdǝʊt/

/ˈdaʊbt/

Mother

/ˈmʌdǝ/

/ˈmͻ:da/

Wire

/ˈWaiǝ/

/ˈWaja/

Womb

/ˈWu:m/

/ˈWu:mb/

Vowel

/ˈvąʊǝl/

/ˈvͻwǝl/

Category

/ˈkæt.ǝ.gri/

/ˈkætigͻri/

Vehicle

/ˈvi:.l..ki/

/ˈvehikul/

Women

/ˈWimin/

/ˈWumen/

Pure

/ˈpjʊǝ/

/ˈpiͻr/

Champagne

/ʆæm'pein/

/ˈtʆæm'pen/

Curriculum

/ˈkǝ'rik.jʊ.lǝm/

/ˈkͻrikͻlͻm/

Student

/ˈstju:dǝnt/

/ˈstudent/

Liquor

/ˈlik.ǝr/

/ˈlikwͻ:/

Ado

/ǝˈdu:/

/ædͻ/

Almanac

/ˈͻ:lmǝ.næk/

/æl.mænak/

Singing

/ˈsiȠ.iƞ/

/ˈsingin/

Amoeba

/ˈǝmi:.bǝ/

/ˈæmuiba:/

Quasi

/ˈkwei-zaI-/

/ˈkwaiʆi/

Sachet

/ˈsæʆ.ei/

/ˈsætʆet/

Brochure

/ˈb.rǝ.ʆr/

/ˈbrͻkiͻ/

Three

/ˈθri:/

/ˈtri:/

They

/ˈðel/

/ˈdei/

Replacement of some English consonant and vowels abound in their pronunciations. English dental fricatives /θ, ð/ are replaced by dental stops /t, d/. Other example includes:

Burn

/ɜ:/

/ͻ:/

Amoeba

/ǝ/

/a/

Champagne

/ʆ/

/ts/

Liquor

/q/

/kw/

Jamb

/dƷ/

/j/

Power

/ʊ/

/w/

Vowel

/ʊ/

/ͻ/

Mother

/ʌ/

/ͻ:/

Colour

/l/

/r/

Three

/θ/

/t/

They

ð

/d/

The diphthong

The word diphthong is of Greek origin as posit by Daniel (2003). It is used to described a vowel which changes its quality in the process of its articulation, it starts as one vowel phoneme and ends as another. This diphthong is a problem to many Idoma users of English language. They replace it with the monothong /e/ thereby pronouncing the word as:

Word

Received Pronunciation

Idoma pronunciation

Maid

/ˈmeid/

/ˈmed/

Reign

/ˈrein/

/ˈren/

Bait

/ˈbeit/

/ˈbet/

Saint

/ˈseint/

/ˈsent/

Taste

/ˈteist/

/ˈtest/

Pray

/ˈprei/

/ˈpre/

Shade

/ˈʆeid/

/ˈsed/

Pain

/ˈpein/

/ˈpen/

Bail

/ˈbeil/

/ˈbel/

They do not pronounce /ei/ as a real diphthong rather as a simple vowel /e/. This often leads to erroneous pronunciation of words that bears such diphthong. However, proper articulation of /ei/ involves a slight movement of the tongue and jaw and spread lips, beginning from /e/ and ending in /i/.

Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion

The results of the study indicate that pronunciation difficulties found among the Idoma native speakers of English language are caused by negative transfer from the first initial language orthography, in this case, from Idoma into English. Also some consonant and vowels not sounded in the mother tongue, but found in the English orthography prove very difficult for the speakers to pronounce. The speakers do not have the knowledge of these sounds in their memory; hence, they cannot pronounce them correctly. It is evidence from the study that Idoma speakers of English mispronounced English words because of the environmental influence. The environment where most of them finds themselves do not regard the use of correct pronunciation.

This paper further suggests that research should be conducted to ascertain the rationale behind their inability to discern between lateral Alveolar /I/ and tap Alveolar /r/ even when these sounds are present in their sounds inventory or orthography. The study suggests that Idoma speakers of English should be properly trained in this area to acquire correct pronunciation.

The goal of learning a foreign language is to enable one communicate effectively in the target language. This purpose could only be achieved through appropriate pronunciation. Anything short of this will indicate the incompetence on the parts of the user. This will certainly render communication mutually unintelligible for all the parties involved in the use of language.

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Stevenson, K. T. (1974). On the teaching of spoken English, Unibadan, INESA, vol. 6-No. 1. 75 - 76.

White, L. (1987). Against comprehensible input: The input hypothesis and the development of second language competence. Applied Linguistics 8(2): 95 - 110.

Yusuf, O. (2010). Languages to the World O. Yusuf (Ed). Basic Linguistics for Nigerian Languages 109 - 138, Ijebuode: Shebiotimo Publications.

Asụsụ Igbo N'Ezi Gbara Atọ N'Ihe Gbasara Nkanụzụ N'Oge Igwe Amamiihe senchụri nke iri abụọ na otu

Nke Ọkammụta Joy Ifeadikanwa Obayi Humanities Unit, School of General Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka joy.obayi@unn.unn.edu.ng +2348065132008,

Maazị Onyebuchi Virginus Arua Linguistics/Igbo and Other Nigerian LanguaUniversity of Nigeria, NsukkaOnyebuchi.aruah@unn.edu.ng+2348039482647

Na

Udensi, Peace Ebere Humanities Unit, School of General Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka ebere.udensi@unn.edu.ng +2348038499009

Umịedemede Isi nchọcha a bụ ima ihe e mere asụsụ Igbo n'oge ugbu a mmụta na-abawanye ụba bụ mmụta nkanụzụ ya na iji igwe mmụta bụ cọmputa wee dee ihe ma kuzie ya n'asụsụ Igbo dịka mmụta ndị ọzọ na-aga n'iru. Nsogbu bụrụ na igwe amamiihe a enweghị mkpụrụedemede Igbo na ya. Ọ bụrụ na e dechaa ihe n'igwe ahụ pụta ka e wepụta ya n'ụdị akwụkwọ edereede. Ihe a ga-ahụ abụrụ ihe gbagwojuru anya. Nchọcha a depụtakwara ajụjụ nchọcha abụọ iji chọpụta nke bụ eziokwu na ọmụmụ a. Ma onye nchọcha kere mmadụ iri isii na ise (65) bụ ndị nkụzi Igbo njụmaza a ya na ụmụakwụkwọ dị out narị na iri mmadụ abụọ na ise (125) nke SS2 n'ime ọchịchị ime obodo Nsụka nke Steeti Enugwu. Ọnụọgụ ahụ nọchitere anya ndị nkụzi niile na ụmụakwụkwọ niile ebe ngalaba Sekọndịrị Nsụka niile dị na ya. Ndịnetiti (miin) na ndịpu izugbe (standaad divieshọn) ka e jiri hazie ajụjụ nchọcha. E jikwara ụmaokwu abụọ wee hazie nchọcha a ebe e ji t-testi wee nyocha ụmaokwu. Ọkpụrụkpụ nchọpụta gosiri na (1) igwe amamiihe adịghị adị, (2) ọtụtụ ndị nkụzi amaghị apị igwe amamiihe. (3) Akụrụ ngwa igwe a ebe ọ dị adị ezuchaghị oke. Onye nchọcha kwupụtakwara ụfọdụ ihe ga-enye aka ikwalite asụsụ Igbo n'ọgbọ ije a dịka - Ndị gọọmentị Naịjiria ịhụ na e nwere igwe amamiihe nke bụ afere asụsụ ala anyị dịka ime ka ndị ọ bụ ọrụ ha dịka Naijiria kọmụnikashọn kọmishọn (NCC) buru nke a n'obi na igwe amamiihe ọ bụla batara Naijiria ga-ebu afere a. Nke a ga-eme ka asụsụ Igbo nwee ike gaa n'iru dịka ọmaliteworo.

Igodo Okwu: Asụsụ Igbo, Ezi gbara atọ, Nkanụzụ na ọgbara ọhụrụ.

Mkpọlite

Okwu akpụn'ọnụ bụ imụ asụsụ e jiri mụọ mmadụ ma ọ bụ asụsụ epum agaghị akarị akarị. Maka ihe a ka e jiri mara agbụrụ. Agbụrụ na-enweghị asụsụ epum e nweghị njirimara ma nke ha gwụrụ agwụ. Ya mere agbụrụ ọ bụla ga-ejisi ike kwalite asụsụ na omenaala ha bụ ihe ga-enye ha ọnọdụ dịka mba. Asụsụ na-agbanwe dịka ihe na-agbanwe mana omenaala dị ọkpụtọrọ ọkpụ nke asụsụ nọkwa n'ime ya. Oyelami (2008) kwuru sị na asụsụ bụkwa ngalaba ọdịnaala. Nke a pụtara na a gaghị ewepụ asụsụ n'ọdịnaala. Asụsụ Igbo bụkwanụ otu n'ime asụsụ kacha n'ala Naijiria nke iwu afọ 1999 nke Naịjiria kwuru ka ọ bụrụ asụsụ a ga-eji na-akụzi ihe n'ụlọ akwụkwọ dị elu ma na-ejikwa ya ekwu okwu n'ụlọ ọgbakọ ukwu ala anyị ya na ọgbakọ etiti. Nke a pụtara na e kwesịrị ikuzi Igbo n'ụlọakwụkwọ niile Naịjiria gbaa gburugburu ka ụwa niile sonyekwa. Nke a abụghị obere ihe, ya kpatara igwe amamiihe ga-adị adị iji nye aka ime ka nke a gaa n'ihu n'asụsụ ndị ọzọ na ihe mmụta ndị ọzọ.

Ọtụtụ ihe mgbochi dị nke mere na asụsụ Igbo na-akpọbi ụkwụ na senchụri nke iri abụọ na otu. Ọtụtụ nne na nna agụwaala akwụkwọ isi ma gaa obodo dị iche iche ituru ugo mmụta. Ọtụtụ dị otu a amaghị asụ Igbo ma ọ bụ ede ya. Ọ bụrụ na e nwee igwe amamiihe, ọ ga-enye aka ime ka ndị dị otu a gụwa ya site n'igwe ahụ ma nwee ike ide ya. O nweghị onye ga-asị na ofe nne ya tere adịghị mma. Ọ dịkwaghị onye ga-achọ ka aha ya fuo ma ọ bụ ka a napụ ya oke ruru ya. Ebe ọ bụ na mkpụrụedemede Igbo adịghị n'efere igwe amamiihe nke a, ọ pụtara na a gaghị enwe ike iji igwe bipụta ya. Iji maa atụ - e nweghị ike ide 'ọ', 'ụ', 'ị' na 'ṅ' n'igwe ma bipụta ha naanị ma e tinyere afere Igbo n'ime Igwe amamiihe ahụ, ma chọkwaa igwe nwekwara afere Igbo maka mbipụta. Ọ bụghị otu a, ederede aghasaa.

Asụsụ ka e ji echekwa ọdịnaala mana ọ bụ ọdịnaala ka e ji ama dike. Ya mere, nkanụzụ kwesịrị ka anyị mara ya nke ọma (Ejionueme 2012). Ọ bụ site n'ọzụzụ ndị nkụzị ka a ga-eji mee ka ebumnobi a gbasara nkwalite asụsụ Igbo n'oge a mmụta na-abawanye, nwee isi na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu a. Ndị nkụzi bụ isi sekpụ ntị n'ihe niile gbasara mmụta. Ha ga-ebu ụzọ mụta otu e si eji ya bụ igwe amụ ihe ka ha were nwee ike ikụzi ma haziere ụmụakwụkwọ ha. Mgbe ahụ o si n'aka fere n'aka ọzọ. Asụsụ anyị enwee ike gawa n'iru. Ọ bụ eziokwu na o nwere ndị fooro ntutu taa na ha agaghị akwado asụsụ Igbo dịka Nwadike (2008) kwuworo na ọtụtụ ndị Igbo ekweghị ka ụmụ ha sụọ Igbo site

N'ịsụrụ ha asụsụ Bekee. Ha tikwere ya ka iwu na ụmụ ha agaghị asụ Igbo nke mere na otu onye nkuzi na mahadum Nsụkka na-abara onye- nkuzi nyere nwa ya ihe omume Igbo mba ka ọ kpachara anya ya maka inye nwa ya nnwale n'Igbo. ọ kpọrọ nke a 'nọnsensị' n'olu Bekee iji gosi iwe ya.p39

Nke a erijughị afọ n'ihi na ndị dị otu a na-egosi iberiibe dị ha n'ime n'ihi na ha amaghị ihe ha na-eme. Onye nwe ọba kpọọ ọba ya mkpọkọrọ ụmụaka ewere ya kpoo ntụ ụtụtụ. Ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ ekwuwokwa okwu maka ụdị agwa dị otu a mana ihe bụ isi sekpu ntị bụ ka ụgbọ ghara ịgha ndị Igbo site na mmepe ọgbara ọhụrụ. Onye ọ bụla ga-agba mbọ iwebata ihe niile ga-eme ka ọganiiru bata iji mee ka onye gbara mbọ rie erere so ya.

Onye ọ bụla chọrọ ịma ihe na-aga n'oge a, nkanụzụ mere ka ihe dịwaga mfe. Ndị Igbo kwesịkwara itinyekwa ozi site n'asụsụ Igbo n'igwe na-ekwu okwu ma nke onyonyoo site n'itinyecha ihe niile na-enye ụmụ ọgbara ọhụrụ obi aṅụrị n'ụzọ ga-akwalite omenaala Igbo ma mekwaa ka ndị mmadụ bie ndụ dị mma. Dịka Echeruo (1982) si kwuo na asụsụ ga-adị ndụ ma gaa n'iru ma ọ bụrụ na e chekwaba ya ma mee ka ọ dị ugwu n'ọgbọ n'ọgbọ ọ bụla na-asụ ya na ụdị ọgbọ ahụ chọrọ. Nke a mere o ji dị nnukwu mkpa na a ga-eme ka ụmụ ntoroọbịa kwụrụ chịm n'ihe gbasara asụsụ Igbo. Okwu a Echeruo kwuru bụ nsogbu nye ndị Igbo n'oge a. Ọ bụ ndị ụka tụmadụ ụka CMS wetara odide asụsụ Igbo iji kọwaa ma gụọ okwu Chineke. Mana ihe a na-ahụ n'ụlọụka ugbu a bụ na ndị ụka anaghị ejikwa asụsụ Igbo akụzi okwu Chineke kama ọ bụ asụsụ Bekee. Ụmụ ntoroọbịa niile gbasoo ha na-asụ ya ma nke dabara ma nke adabaghị, chefuo na anyị bụ ndị Igbo. Ihe a wee bụrụ ihe jọgburu udele ma sigbuo nkakwụ n'isi. Nke a wee bụrụ na ndị Igbo ga-ebido n'oge chụwa ewu ojii tupu chi ejie.

Ndị isi ụka ndị Igbo niile ga-amara na agwọ nọ n'akịrịka. Otu ọnọdụ ndị Igbo sịrị kwụrụ n'obodo Naịjiria, Igbo anọghị n'elu ma Igbo anọghị n'ala mana Igbo abụghị ụsụ. Chineke ekwela! Onye ọ bụla ga-agba akpaaka ya mmiri ma mee ka ụmụ Igbo sụwa Igbo site n'iji asụsụ Igbo aka ụka; tinye ya n'onyonyoo nke a na-akwụba n'ụlọụka ma mee ka ha gụwa ya mgbe a na-ekwe ukwe. 'Ụkpana okpoko gburu, ntị chiri ya'.

Nkọwasokwu nka dịka na nghọta onwe

Asụsụ Igbo

Asụsụ Igbo bụ asụsụ epum nke ndị a na-akpọ Igbo. Ndị a bụ ndị bi na mpaghara ọwụwa anyanwụ Naịjiria. Asụsụ Igbo bụ asụsụ a na-ede dịka e si asụ ya. O nwechakwara ngalaba dị iche dịka ntọala asụsụ nke ndị mmadụ na-akpọ ụtọasụsụ, nwee Omenaala na Agụmagụ n'ime ngalaba dịgasị iche iche n'ime ha iji kọwamie ha nke ọma. Ohiri (2004) kọwara asụsụ epum dịka asụsụ e jiri mụọ nwata, na nke o pulitere n'ime ya. O kwukwara na ọ bụ asụsụ mbụ nwata mụtara na ndụ ya; nke o ji akparịta ụka ma na-enwekwa mmekọrịta, ya na mmadụ ndị dị na gburugburu ya. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (1995) kwukwara na asụsụ epum bụ 'agwa nwata nwetara ma ọ bụ nke ọ mụtara n'aka nne ya ma ọ bụ n'aka ndị obodo ha'. Mana e tere ụgba e tere azụ, asụsụ epum bụ asụsụ chi nke sitere n'ọnụ nne nwata bụ nke nwata na-anụ mgbe niile. Asụsụ epum bụ ihe e jiri mara onye. Ọ bụ asụsụ epum na-egosi agbụrụ onye si bịa. Ọ na-egosi ụdịdị mmadụ na njirimara ndị site n'agwa onye na-akpa. Asụsụ epum nwekwara nke ndị Igbo haziri ka ọ bụrụ nke onye ọ bụla ga-asụ ma edewe Igbo n'akwụkwọ ka o were kwe onye ọ bụla nghọta. Maka na asụsụ epum dị n'ụdị n'ụdị dịka Nwadike (2002:8) si kọwaa ya dịka epum nke 'Ịká' (ụkwanị na Enuanị) nke a na-asụ n'akụkụ Bini. E nwekwara olu ndị Ọnịcha, Ọlụ, Owere, Nsụka, Ụmụahịa na Abakeleke nke bụ nke a na-asụ na steeti Anambara, Imo, Enugwu, Abịa na Abọnyị. E nwekwazịrị epum nke Ikwere-Eche nke steeti Rivas.

Ohiri (2004) kwuru na kemgbe ihe dịka afọ 1940 ka a malitere kụziwe Igbo n'ụlọakwụkwọ ndị sekọndịrị, e nweela ọtụtụ mgbanwe n'ihe gbasara nkụzi na ọmụmụ ya. Ụfọdụ mgbanwe ndị a metụtara ọnụọgụgụ na ụdịrị ụmụakwụkwọ na-amụ ya. Ntụanya na mbunuche nkụzi ya, na kwa ụdịrị ule na nnwale a na-enwe na ya.p1

Ohiri mekwara ka a mara na mgbe nkuzi Igbo malitere na ọ bụ naanị n'ụlọakwụkwọ abụọ bụ Dennis Memorial Grammar School (D.M.G.S), Ọnịcha ya na Methodist Institute, Uzuakọlị ka a na-akụzi Igbo. Mgbe ahụ ọ dịghị n'iwu ikuzi Igbo n'ụlọakwụkwọ niile wee ruo n'afọ 1977 oge gọọmenti etiti jiri tie ya ka iwu na ụmụakwụkwọ sekọndịrị niile ga-amụ asụsụ epum n'ụlọakwụkwọ sekọndịrị. Mgbe ahụ ka e jiri bido kuziwe asụsụ Igbo dịka asụsụ epum n'ụlọakwụkwọ sekọndịrị niile n'ala Igbo. Mana ọtụtụ ụmụaka Igbo achọghị ịmụ asụsụ Igbo. Ilebaa anya na nke bụ eziokwu, a ga-ahụ na ndị ukwu dị iche iche bụ ndị ọkammụta Naịjiria bụkwa asụsụ Igbo du ha gaa mba dị iche iche n'ụwa a.

Ihe dịka oge ugbu a, asụsụ Igbo bụzị ihe a na-amụ na Mahadum ala anyi iji mee ka asụsụ a gaa n'iru. Ihe ka mkpa bụ inwe ọtụtụ ndị nkụzi maara ihe ha na-eme n'asụsụ Igbo ka ha gbaa akpaaka ume ịhụ na asụsụ Igbo kwụ chịm chịm ruo oge a chọrọ ka o ruo. Mana dịka Ohiri (2004) si kwuo na nsogbu dị n'inwe ụdịrị ndị nkụzi a bụ na e nweghị akwụkwọ nrụtụaka ndị e dere n'Igbo maka ọzụzụ ndị nkụzi Igbo, ma bakwaa uru dịka akwụkwọ nrụtụaka nye ndị ọ bụla na-akụziri ụmụafọ Igbo asụsụ ha dịka asụsụ epum. Mana dịka ọ dị ugbu a, e nweela akwụkwọ nrụaka na-enye aka ikuzi asụsụ Igbo ma ọ bụ Igbo dịka asụsụ epum (L 1) ma ọ bụ Igbo dịka asụsụ nke abụọ (L 2). Usoro e ji akụzi ha abụọ abụghị otu dịka a na-ahụ na Mahadum Nsụkka na ngalaba School of General Studies (SGS).

Ezi gbara atọ Ezi bụ ụzọ mmadụ si aga ma ọ bụ 'ọnọdụ'. 'gbara' bụ ngwaa na-egosi ihe o kwuru na-achọ ikọwa. 'Atọ' bụ ọnọdụ mgbagwoju anya nke bụ na odee ma ọ bụ okwuu amaghị ihe ọ ga-eme. E nwere ike ịkpọ ya; ọnọdụ gbara gharịị, jewe ejewe adịghị nso, ma lawa alawa adịkwaghị nso. Ọnọdu ahụ bụ ọnọdụ onye nọ n'ime ya ga-agba mbọ sowe nke ga-eweta ọ ganiihu na ọṅụ; ọ bụrụgodu na ụzọ ahụ siri ike ịga. Ezi gbara atọ oge ụfọdụ na-abụ ọnọdụ mmadụ anaghị enwe mkpebi ọsọ ọsọ n'ihi na ọ maghị nke ga-agazi agazi.

Nkanụzụ

Nke a bụ nchọpụta nke gbara mmadụ gharịị bụ nke oyibo wepụtara iji mee ihe n'ụzọ dị mfe. Nkanụzụ na-enye aka n'ọganiihu nke ụwa na-achọ inwe ma na-enyekwazi aka ime asụsụ ka ọ tọọ atọọ. https://www.dictionary kọwara nkanụzụ dịka ngalaba amamiihe nke na-ahụ maka okike na iji akụrụ ngwa amamiihe dịka ha siri metụta ndụ, obodo, ya na akụkụ anyị bi na-adọrọ ihe ọmụmụ esereese, ndị na-ahụ maka nchọpụta dị iche iche wee dịrị gawa. Ụwa taa esila n'oge brọnzụ, gata n'oge igwe wee banye n'oge igwe amamiihe nke ndị bekee na-akpọ 'computar' bụ mgbe igwe na-eche echiche karịa ka mmadụ ga-eche ma mee ka e nwee ụsa nye ihe ọ bụla a chọrọ ịma. Ọ bụ nkanụzụ mere e jiri nwee igwe na-enyocha ime ahụ mmadụ nke ndị bekee na-akpọ ultra sound, MRI, CAT scans ya na ngwa ndị ọzọ na-enyocha ime ahụ mmadụ ma kọwaa ya nke ga-eme ka ndị dibịa oyibo nwee ike iji ya rụọ dị ike n'ahụ mmadụ. Nkanụzụ nwekwere igwe na-akọwa okwu site n'asụsụ gaa n'asụsụ ọzọ.

Ọgbara ọhụrụ

Nke a bụ ihe a dịbughị n'oge mbụ bụ nke a na-eme ugbu a. Ọgbara ọhụrụ dị n'ụdị na ụdị. E nwere ụmụ ọgbara ọhụrụ bụ ndị ntorobịa. Omume na echiche ha eyighị nke ndị mgbe ochie. Ha na-ahụta ndị mgbe ochie dịka ndị eruchaghị ogogo ha kwerịrị iru n'ihi asaheghị anya dịka o siri kwesị. A bịakwa n'ihe gbasara okwu akpụ n'ọnụ bụ nkanụzụ ya na igwe amamiihe bụ cọmputa, ihe ndị a bụgasị ọgbara ọhụrụ n'ihi na ọdịbughị n'oge gara aga. Ọ bụ ya kpatara o ji esi ike n'ihi na a maghị anya ya. Obodo mepere emepe ndị malitere jiri ya rụwa ọrụ enweghị nnukwu nsogbu dịka ndị amaghị ihe ọ bụ. Otu a ka ọ dị ndị okenye bụ ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ mgbe gboo oge e jighị igwe cọmputa agụ akwụkwọ. Ihe gbasara igwe cọmputa na-enye ha nsogbu n'iji ya gụọ akwụkwọ n'ihi na e jighị ya zụọ ha. Ụmụ ntakịrị bụ ndị maara nke a nke ọma a na-ahụ ha dịka ndị na-amaghị ihe.

Ajụjụ nchọcha

Ajụjụ nchọcha a ka ajụrụ iji wepụta ụsa nye isiokwu a

  • Kedụ otu asụsụ Igbo si nọrọ n'ezi gbara atọ na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu nke Naijiria?
  • Kedụ otu a ga-esi merie nsogbu a asụsụ Igbo nwere n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ ya na igwe amamiihe na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu nke Naijiria?

Ụma okwu efu

Ụ O. 1 Onweghị ihe dị iche n'etiti ndị nkuzi na ụmụakwụkwọ n'ebe asụsụ Igbo nọ na nkanụzụ na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu

Ụ O. 2 Onwere otu a ga-esi gboo mkpa gbasara nkanụzụ n'ezi gbara atọ n'oge igwe amaiihe/computa na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otuNaijiria.

Usoro Nchọcha

Nchọcha nkọwa ka e jiri mee nchọcha a nke gbadoro ukwụ n'ihe Nwọọgụ (2006) kọwara na mnyocha dịka ụzọ e ji enweta ngwa nchọcha nke ndị nchọcha ji eme mnyocha nke gbasara ufọdụ ọnụọgụgụ nke ga-anọchite anya mmadụ niile.

Nsere na usoro nsere e ji mee nchọcha a bụ nke ama ama sere iji nọchite anya ndị nkụzi niile na ụmụakwụkwọ niile nọ na Nsụka Edukshọn Zonu. Ebe ndị nkụzi dị iri mmadụ isii na ise (65) ma ụmụakwụkwọ dị out narị na iri mmadụ abụọ na ise (125).

Ngwa nchọcha kewara ụzọ abụọ (A na B). Ebe nke 'A' na-ajụ ajụjụ maka onwe mana ngalaba 'B' bụ njụmaaza a haziri n'usoro ọsaa ga-ahọrọ nke o kpebiri ka mma. Ajụjụ nchọcha a dị iri abụọ. Mpaghara nke mbụ na-ekwu maka otu asụsụ Igbo siri nọrọ n'ezi gbara atọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ ya na igwe amamiihe na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu nke Naijiria. Mpaghara nke abụọ na-ajụzị ihe a ga-eme ka ihe dị mma. E nwere nhazi anọ nke ga-egosi otu ọsa ajụjụ siri kwenye n'ihe a na-ekwu maka ya. Ekwesiri m ike (EI), Ekwere m (E), A jụrụ m (A), Ajụsiri m ike (AI) nke akara ha bụcha 4, 3, 2, 1 n'usoro ha si dị.

E nyochakwara ngwa nchọchaa hụ na ọ dabara nke ọma n'ihe a na-ekwu ebe ọtụtụ ya bụ 0.82 na 0.77 n'usoro ha.

E kere njụmaaza nye ụmụakwụkwọ sekọndịrị nke ise na ndị nkụzi Igbo n'ụlọ akwụkwọ dị n' okpuru ọchịchị Nsụka. Nke a nyeere ndị nchọcha aka ime ngwa ngwa inweta ụsa na mnyocha nke a na-eme.

Ajụjụ nchọcha mbụ na nke abụọ bụ miin na ndịpu izugbe ka e jiri rụọ ya; ebe mgbado ụkwụ miin bụ 2.50 maka ajụjụ nchọcha.

Ụsa Nchọcha

Ajụjụ Nchọcha nke mbụ: Kedu otu asụsụ Igbo si nọrọ n'ezi gbara atọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ n'igwe amamiihe/cọmputa na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu Naijiria?

Tebul 1: Miin na ndịpu izugbe nke akara ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ n'ọnọdụ asụsụ Igbo n'ezi gbara atọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ n'oge igweamaiihe/cọmputa na senchụri nke iri abụọ na otu Naịjiria.

Ihe Nkwusa

Ndị aziza

N

Miin

NI

Mkpebi

1

.Igwe amaiihe adighi n'ụlọ akwụkwọ anyi

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.49

.50

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.28

.45

E

2

Igwe amaiihe di mana o bughi ibu

Ndị nkuzi

65

2.07

.75

A

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

2.00

.56

A

3

Igwe amamiihe nke ndi enweghi akara Igbo na ya

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.95

.21

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.52

.50

E

4

Ndị nkuzi anyi amaghi api igwe amamiihe

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.72

.62

E

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.49

.50

E

5

Obo Nkuzi Igbo adighi n'ụlọ akwụkwọ

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.39

.58

E

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.63

.48

E

6

Ndị nkuzi e nweghi ohere iga muo otu e si eji igwe amaiihe ede akwụkwọ

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.38

.48

E

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.86

.34

E

7

Ọtụtụ ndị nkuzi e nweghi mmasi imu ka e si eji

Igwe amaiihe ede akwụkwọ

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.48

.50

E

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.86

.34

E

8

Ikuku na-enye igwe amaiihe ike adighi n'ụlọ

Akwụkwọ anyi

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.58

.49

E

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.87

.33

E

9

Ndị nkuzi ndị choro imuta ka e ji igwe amamiihe

Agu akwụkwọ e nweghi oge zuuru ha imuta ya.

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.63

.48

E

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.56

.66

E

10

. Igwe ntughari nke na-ebiputa ihe ka o di n'Igbo

Abaghi ụba.

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.40

.60

E

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.46

.66

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.32

.59

E

Nchịkọta Miin

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.41

.19

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.30

.32

E

Tebul 1 gosiri nhazi miin nke ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ n'ihe gbasara ọnọdụ asụsụ Igbo n'ezi gbara atọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ na n'oge cọmputa na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu Naịjiria. Nke a gosiri na nhazi miin nke ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ na nkwusa 1, 3-10 karịrị 2.50 bụ nzọ miin. Nke a gosiri na ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ kwenyere na nkwusa nke 1, 3-10 dịka ọnọdụ asụsụ Igbo n'ezi gbara atọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ n'oge igwe amamiihe/cọmputa na Naịjiria na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu. N'ihi nke a, ndị ụsa ajụjụ ma ndị nkụzi ma ụmụakwụkwọ na nkwusa nke abụọ (2) zara n'ekwenyeghị ihe nkwusa kwuru mana ha na-akwadokwa na enweghị igwe amamiihe. Nke a mere ụsa ha dịkwa obere nye akara nzọ miin 2.50 gosiri na ndị ụsa ekwenyeghị na nkwusa 2.

U O. 1: O nweghị ihe pụtara iche n'ebe ndị nkuzi na ụmụakwụkwọ nọ n'ụsa ha nyere gbasara ọnọdụ nkanụzụ na cọmputa n'ebe asụsụ Igbo nọ na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu Naịjiria.

Tebul 2: bụnhazit-teesti nke ndịiche n'etiti miin akara ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ na mbọ a na-agba iji wepụta asụsụ Igbo n'ezi gbara atọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ n'oge cọmputa na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otuNaịjiria.

Ndị aziza

N

Miin

NI

Ni

t-cal

uru. ( 2-tailed)

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.41

.19

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.30

.32

188

1.11

.063

Tebul 2 gosiri na probabiliti nke jikọrọ nchịkọ nke t (1.11) n'ihe dị iche na nhazi miin nke ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ ụzọ a ga-esi zọpụta asụsụ Igbo n'ezi gbara atọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ n'oge cọmputa na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu Naịjiria bụ 0.063. Ebe probabiliti nke pụtara 0.063 karịrị 0.05 akara nzọ na uru, ya mere ụma okwu efu bụ ihe a na-ajụghị ajụ. Ya mere o nweghị ndịịche dị na nhazi miin ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ n'ihe gbasara asụsụ Igbo n'ezi gbara atọ na nkanụzụ n'oge cọmputa na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu, Naịjiria.

Ajụjụ Nchọcha Abụọ: Kedụ otu a ga-esi merie nsogbu a asụsụ Igbo nwere n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ ya na igwe amamiihe na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu nke Naịjiria?

Tebul 3: Miin na ndịpu izugbe nke nhazi ndị nkụzi ya na ụmụakwụkwọ na ụzọ e si agba mbọ ịzọpụta asụsụ Igbo n'ezi gbara atọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ n'oge cọmputa nke senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu Naịjiria.

Ihe Nkwusa

Ndị aziza

N

Miin

NI

Mkpebi

Ihe Nkwusa

11

A ga-eme ka ndị na-ahu maka mmuta n'ala anyi zutawa igwe amamiihe bu ndị nwere akaraIgbo.

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.64

.67

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.44

.58

E

12

A ga-emekwa ka e nwee igwe mbiputa

Nke na-ebiputa asusu Igbo ma tinye ntupo

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.41

.82

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.31

.66

E

13

Ndị nkuzi Igbo ga-eje ozuzu muo ka

E si eji igwe amamiihe ebiputa akwụkwọ

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.38

.86

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.32

.67

E

Ndị goomenti ga-agbakwa mbo ihu na ndị nkuzi

Na Ụmụakwụkwọ ga n-enwe omumu mmughari...

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.73

.44

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.50

.50

E

Ndị isi ụlọakwụkwọ ga-akwado ndị nkuzi ije Ozuzu iji mata ihe ha na-eme

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.27

.94

E

Umuakwu..

125

3.25

.73

E

A ga- agbakwa mbo ihu na igwe amamiihe zuru

ụlọakwụkwọ niile

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.72

.57

E

Umuakwu..

125

3.51

.54

E

17. Ihe gbasakwara ikuku na-eme ka igwe amaiihe

Nwetawa ozi n'ebe ozo ka a ga-arunye n'ụlọakwu..

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.67

.58

E

Umuakwu..

125

3.49

.54

E

Ndị isi ụlọ akwụkwọ niile ga-agbakwa mbo hu

Na-akwadoro asusu Igbo site n'inye ha oge zuuru ha

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.44

.61

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.40

.54

E

A ga-enwekwa ubochi ga-abu ubochi ndị Igbo

N'ụlọ akwụkwọ niile

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.49

.86

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.48

.66

E

A ga-enwe ihe agbam ume nye ndị nkuzi na

Ụmụakwụkwọ ndị mere nke oma n'asusu Igbo

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.70

.55

E

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.52

.54

E

Overall Mean

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.55

.31

E

Umuakwukw..

125

3.42

.33

E

Tebul 3 gosiri akara miin ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ n'ihe gbasara ụzọ a ga-esi zọpụta asụsụ Igbo n'ezi gbara atọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ ya na igwe amaiihe/cọmputa na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu, Naịjiria. Nke a gosikwara na akara miin ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ malite na nke iri na otu ruo na nke iri abụọ (11-20) karịrị ntọ 2.50. Nke a gosiri na ma ndị nkụzi ma ụmụakwụkwọ kwenyere na nkwusa 11 ruo na 20 dịka ụzo ga-enye aka ihụ na asụsụ Igbo enweghị nsogbu n'oge a oke mmụta na-arị ibe ya enu ebe nkanụzụ dị tinyere igwe amamiihe/cọmputa na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu, Naịjiria.

U O2: O nweghị ihe dị iche n'akara miin ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ dịka na mkpebi gbasara ụzọ a ga-esi mee ka a zọpụta asụsụ Igbo n'oge a nkanụzụ tinyere igwe amamiihe/cọmputa na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu, Naịjiria.

Tebul 4: bụnhazit-testi nke ndịịche n'akara miin ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ n'ihe gbasara ụzọ a ga-esi gboo mkpa n'ọnọdụ asụsụ Igbo nọ n'oge a nkanụzụ na cọmputa juru ebe niile iji zọpụta asụsụ Igbo na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu

Ndị azịza

N

Miin

On

Ni(Df)

t-cal

Uru. ( 2-tailed)

Ndị nkuzi

65

3.55

.31

Ụmụakwụkwọ

125

3.42

.33

188

1.06

.079

Tebul 4 gosiri na probabiliti nke so mgbakọ mpụtara nke t (1.06) maka ndịịche nke akara miin ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ n'ihe gbasara asụsụ Igbo n'ezi gbara atọ n'ụzọ a ga-esi zọpụta asụsụ Igbo n'oge nka n'uzu na igwe amamiihe/cọmputa na senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu Naijiria bụ 0.079. Ebe mpụtara nke probabiliti bu 0.079 were karia akara ndịiche 0.05, ụma efu abụghị ihe a jụrụ ajụ. Ya mere o nweghị ihe dị iche na nkwenye akara miin ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwọkwọ gbasara ụzọ a ga-esi nyere asụsụ Igbo aka ịhụ na ọ pụtara n'ọnọdụ ọjọọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ ya na igwe amamiihe/cọmputa n'ezi gbara atọ nke senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu, Naịjiria.

Mkparịta ụka

Ajụjụnchọcha nke mbụ na-ajụ si kedu otu asụsụ Igbo si nọrọ n'ezi gbara atọ n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ na igwe amamiihe/cọmputa na senchụri nke iri abụọ na otu Naịjiria. E lebanye anya n'ụsa e nyere maka nke a, a ga-ahụ na ajụjụ iri a jụrụ iji mata ihe na-eme, gosiri na akara nzọ niile gafere bụ nke ụmụakwụkwọ na ndị nkuzi gafere nzọ 2.50 nke na-egosi na ndị azịza kwenyesịrị ike n'ajụjụ niile a jụrụ. Ajụjụ ahụ bụ: Igwe amamiihe adịghị adị n'ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndịrị anyị, Igwe amamiihe dị mana o bughi ibu, Igwe amamiihe nke dị enweghị akara Igbo na ya., Ndị nkuzi anyị amaghị apị igwe amamiihe., ọbọ nkuzi Igbo adịghị n'ụlọ akwụkwọ anyị., Ndị nkuzi enweghị ohere ịga mụọ otu e si eji igwe amamiihe akụzi ihe., ọtụtụ ndị nkuzi e nweghị mmasị imụ ka e si eji igwe amamiihe ede akwụkwọ., Ikuku na-enye igwe amamiihe ike adịghị n'ụlọ akwụkwọ anyị., Ndị nkụzi ndị chọrọ ịmụta ka e si eji igwe amamiihe agụ akwụkwọ enweghi oge zuuru ha ịmụta ya., Igwe ntụgharị nke na-ebipụta ihe ka ọ dị n'Igbo abaghị ụba. Nchọpụta a dabara n'ihe Ejionueme (2012) kwuru na ihe ịma aka n'ihu dịịrị ndị nkụzi Igbo n'ihe gbasara nkanụzụ na igwe amamiihe/cọmputa bụ ngwa cọmputa adịghị ma nke dị ezughị oke. Onye nchọcha na-agbakwụnye na igwe amamiihe enweghị afere Igbo na ya. Nke a bụ nnukwu nsogbu dịịrị asụsụ Igbo.

A bịa n'ajụjụ nchọcha nke abụọ, bụ nke gbadoro ụkwụ n'ụzọ a ga-esi gboo mkpa gbasara asụsụ Igbo n'ezi gbara atọ n'oge nkanụzụ na igwe amamiihe/cọmputa na senchụri nke iri abụọ na otu, Naịjiria. ụsa dị na ya bụ na: A ga-eme ka ndị na-ahụ maka mmụta n'ala anyị zụtawa igwe amamiihe bụ ndị nwere akara Igbo., A ga-emekwa ka e nwee igwe mbipụta akwụkwọ nke nwete ike ibipụta akwụkwọ Igbo ma tinyekwa ya ntụpo ya niile., Ndị nkụzi Igbo ga-eje ọzụzụ mụọ ka e si eji igwe amamiihe ebipụta akwụkwọ ma kuziere ụmụakwụkwọ., Ndị gọọmenti ga-agbakwa mbọ ịhụ na ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ na-enwe ọmụmụ mmụgharị kwa mgbe kwa mgbe iji mee ka ọ baa onye ọ bụla n'ụbụrụ., Ndị isi ụlọ akwụkwọ ga-akwado ndị nkụzi ije ọzụzụ iji mata ihe ha na-eme.,A ga-agbakwa mbọ ịhụ na igwe amamiihe zuru ụlọ akwụkwọ niile iji gbaa ụmụakwụkwọ na ndị nkụzi ume ịmụ igwe amamiihe site n'ide Igbo n'ime ya., Ihe gbasakwara ikuku na-eme ka igwe amamiihe nwetawa ozi n'ebe ọzọ ka a ga-arụnye n'ụlọ akwụkwọ niile.,Ndị isi ụlọ akwụkwọ niile ga-agbakwa mbọ hu na a kwadoro ọmụmụ asụsụ Igbo n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ọ bụla site n'inye ha oge zuuru ha iji kụzie Igbo., A ga-enwekwa ụbọchị ga-abụ ụbọchị ndị Igbo n'ụlọ akwụkwọ niile ka e were sụwa Igbo n'ụlọ akwụkwụ nke a ga-eme ka ụmụakwụkwọ nwee mmasị ịsụ Igbo, A ga-enwe ihe agbam ume nye ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ bụ ndị megasịrị nke ọma n'asụsụ Igbo. Ụsa a niile gbadoro ụkwụ n'ihe gbasara ijisi ike n'ịmụ otu e si eji igwe amamiihe/cọmputa ede akwụkwọ maka onye e jisighi ike ụgbọ aghara ya dịka Kadiri (2012) si kwuo na ụwa ga-ahapụ gị ma ọ bụrụ na mmadụ ejisighị ike sonye n'usoro nkanụzụ na cọmputa si arụ ọrụ n'ụwa n'oge a.

T-testi nke ụmaokwu gosiri na e nweghi ihe dị iche n'ụsa ndị nkụzi na ụmụakwụkwọ na e nwere igwe amamiihe mana o bughi ibu. Ụsa ha abụọ gosiri na e nweghi igwe amamiihe/cọmputa n'ụlọ akwụkwọ sekoọndịrị 2 na Nsụka

Nchịkọta

Ihe gbasara nkanụzụ n'oge computa nke senchụrị nke iri abụọ na otu Naịjiria n'ebe asụsụ Igbo dị abụghị ihe a ga-eji gwuo egwu. Onye ọ bụla ga-adị njikere ịrụ ọrụ dị na ya site n'ime nke kwesịrị ka e mee ka asụsụ Igbo ghara ịnwụ. Gọọmenti ga-enye aka ibụbata igwe amamiihe/cọmputa. Ndị nkụzi n'akụkụ nke ha ewepụta onwe ha ije mụọ ka e si eji igwe amamiihe dee akwụkwọ. Maka na ọ bụ ndị nkuzi bụ isi a hụrụ kwawa okpu. Ọ bụ ha ga-akụzi ihe gbasara nkanụzụ ma ọ bụkwa ha ga-eme ka ụmụ akwụkwọ ghọta ihe a na-eme. Ndị nkụzi ga-agbakwa mbọ ịdị na-eje ihe ọmụmụ mgbe na mgbe ka ha were mara ọgbara ọhụrụ n'ihe gbasara ọmụmụ cọmputa ka ha nwee ike jeso usoro ahụ. Ya mere ihe ọ bụla nke ga-enye aka ihụ na mmiri erighị asụsụ Igbo, ka gọọment jisie ike mee ya ka ọ dịrị nwoke mma dịrị nwaanyị mma. Nke a ga-eme ka asụsụ Igbo gaa n'ihu dịka asụsụ ndị ọzọ.

Ntụnye Aro

Ntụnye aro ndị a gbadoro ụkwụ na nchọpụta nchọcha, mkparịta ụka ya na nchịkọta nchọcha.

  • Gọọmenti ga-ejisike zụtawa igwe amamiihe/cọmputa n'obodo anyị Naijiria bụ ndị nwere akara Igbo na ha ka e wee nwee ike ibipụtanwu asụsụ Igbo n'akwukwọ.
  • Ndị isi ụlọ akwụkwọ secọndịrị ga-agba mbọ ịhụ na ndị nkụzi Igbo jere ọmụmụ cọmputa iji mụta otu e si eji igwe amamiihe/cọmputa ede ihe
  • Ndị isi ụlọ akwụkwọ ga-enyekwa oge zuru maka asụsụ Igbo iji kụzie asụsụ Igbo n'ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndịrị
  • Gọọmenti ga-ejisike n'ime ka e nwee ihe niile gbasara akụrụngwa igwe amamiihe/cọmputa dịka ikuku intanet, ọkụ latrịk, ọbọ asụsụ Igbo n'ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndịrị
  • A ga-enwe ihe agbamume nye ndị nkụzi na ụmụ akwụkwọ bụ ndị na-eme nke ọma n'asụsụ Igbo.

Edensibịa

Echeruo, M.J.C (1982). The Future of Igbo Studies: A very Modest Proposal in Igbo Language and culture. Ibadan. University Press Ltd.

Ejiọnụeme, L.K (2012). ICT Compliance: A Vital tool for teachers in the emerging Knowledge revolution for transformation. International Journal of Educational Research, 11(1), 90-94

Https://www.dictionary.com/browse/technology

Kadiri, G.C (2012). The role of information and communication technology in language teachingand learning in University education. Journal of Liberal Studies, University of Nigeria,Nsukka 15(1) 1-2

Nwadike, I. U (2008). Igbo Language and Culture! Whither bound! (Asusu na Omenala Igbo: Ijeaṅaa?). In R. N. Umeasiegbu (ed). Chief F. C. Ogbalu Memorial Lectures (1&3). Onitsha: varsityPublishing Co.

Ohiri-Aniche, C. (2004). Nkụzi Igbo Dị Ka Asụsụ Epum (Igbo L1) N'ụlọ Akwụkwọ ndị Sekọndịrị. Port Harcourt. Emhai Printing & Publishing Co.

Hornby S (1995). Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary.Britain. Oxford University Press.

Oyelami, M.O (2008). Development of Igbo Language e­-learning System. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education. TOJDE 9(4)

www.yoụrdictionary.com/technology