IDEAL INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IGBO SCHOLARS FORUM, NIGERIA VOLUME 10. NO 1, SEPTEMBERR, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.Rajagla Buddhist Monastery complex: The Biggest Spiritual Center in Ancient Sri Lanka. Dr. Gamini Ranasinghe¹ Dr.AlexanderKapukotuwa²
Dr. Alexander Anedo3
2.Low Level of Language Competence: A Fundamental Factor for Promoting Frequency of Code-Switching Among Adolescent Igbo-English Bilinguals
Njoku Nneka C.
Department of English Language and Literature Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education Owerri email@example.com +2348037360839 Onuabuobi Oluchi Stephanie Department of English Language and Literature Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education Owerri firstname.lastname@example.org +2348069272330
3. An Overview of the Formalist Influence on Language Teaching Eze Adaora¹ Department of Linguistics and Literary Studies Ebonyi State University07069585555
Ahamefula, N. O.² Department of Linguistics, Igbo & Other Nigerian Languages, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
EbubeChineke, Ifeyinwa³ Centre for Igbo Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Ezemoka Augustina3 Igbo Department, Federal capital Territory College of Education, Zuba, Abuja
4. Oath-Taking and Covenant making in Igbo Traditional Religious Society: Central Subcultural Zone of Igbo land Charles Okeke, Ph.D. Department of Christian Religious Studies Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe Onukwube Alex Alfred Anedo, Ph.D. Department of African & Asian Studies Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
5. Functionalism in Linguistics and Language Teaching
Eze Maudlyn Adaora¹
Department of Linguistics and Literary Studies
Ebonyi State University (07069585555)
Ahamefula, N. O.²
Department of Linguistics, Igbo & Other Nigerian Languages, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Ezemoka Augustina3 Igbo Department, Federal capital Territory College of Education, Zuba, Abuja EbubeChineke, Ifeyinwa³ Centre for Igbo Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
6. The Semantic and Pragmatic Analysis of Igbo Clipped Egwuonwu-Chimezie G. N. (Ph.D Department of Linguistics and Igbo, Imo State University, Owerri email@example.com
Rajagla Buddhist Monastery Complex: The Biggest Spiritual Center in Ancient Sri Lanka
Dr. Gamini Ranasinghe
Department of History & Archeology, University of Sri-Jayewardenapura, Sri - lanka
Dr. Alexander Kapukotuwa
Department of History & Archeology, University of Sri-Jayewardenapura, Sri - lanka
Dr. Alexander Anedo3
Department of African & Asian Studies, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
The Buddhism is received from India in the third century BC the regime of the great king Asoka. Arhath Mahinda and Arhath Sangamittha led the Buddhist mission to Sri Lanka in the period of king Devanampiyathissa (BC) who the ruler in the kingdom of Anuradhapura. Within very short period Buddhism spread over the island because of royal patronage. The Buddhist mission is explained in the great chronicle named Mahawamsa and other contemporary records as well as early Brahmin inscriptions also proved the royal patronage.
Figure 1.Rajagla Archaeological Site Figure 20151. Land use Pattern in Ampara District
Source: Based on Survey Department: Source: Based on Survey Department: 2015
Rajagala monastery site is the one of the main Buddhist center from the bagging of the Buddhist society in Sri Lanka. Rajagala archaeological reserve is located Uhana secretarial division in the Ampara district of the Eastern province in Sri Lanka. This is the biggest Buddhist monastery in Sri Lanka that is spread over 1025 acres and recorded the highest place about 1038 feet on mean sea level (Kapukotuwa 2017:1-4). The monastery complex is formed with a main mountain and several sub mountains, planes, natural pods, forest, water stream, thousand of medicine plants, animals and other natural resources.
There are two beautiful stairways to approach to the top of the mountain. Through the area it can be seen caves, stone building, stupa (pagoda), stone pathways, Buddha statues, manmade tanks, stone burials, stone houses etc (Godakumbura 1964:39, 1965:12-13). There are recorded very limited archaeological activities for the site by the department of archaeology because of the war, forest and limitation of the trained officers at that time. Professor Paranavithana concerned to one of most important inscription where located top of the site. According to the inscription, at least the site became as a Buddhist monastery early 200BC (Paranavithana 1985:34). However it is not clear about founder of the monastery but scholars got attention on site through historical documents to unearth its history.
The king named Lajjathissa (119-109BC) has given huge patronage to the development of the site (Mahawamsa 33:14-15, Deepawamsa 1970:11-20). At the present Rajagala called as Rajagalathanne and Rassahela. Somehow, Rajagala has several named in the inscriptions and other chronicle such as Girikumbilavihara, Kumbilathissapabbatha, Ariyakaravihara, Girikumbilathissavihara and Danathisapavathavihara (Kannangara 2014:84-103). After king Lajjathissa other several rulers named Mahadathikamahanaga (337-365AD), Mahasen (274-301AD) and Mahinda II (777-797AD) had given special attention on construction of Rajagala in the kingdom of Anuradhapura (Kannangara 2014:96-99, Hettiarachchi 2014:120-137). Finally, the department of history and archaeology, university of Sri Jayewardenepura and department of archaeology made collaborate attempt in the recent past to read the monastery through scientific approach. Then the first prehistoric excavation held in 2016 and its history back to several thousand years. At the moment the site is not only Buddhist monastery also rich with prehistoric evidences such as stone tools, bones and rock arts.
Due to the influence of Buddhism, hundreds of mountains changed into monastery sites especially several mountain sites populated as meditation monasteries. Therefore, two kinds of monasteries were appeared in the ancient Sri Lanka like temples in the settlement and the temples in the forest. Temples that located near to village and urban area were more crowded and always the monks linked with ruling system in the country. At least they have interfered with civil matters of devotees, because they were totally depended on human settlements. Villages and rulers also expected the help from monks for ruling system. The above situation was pathetic because mediation and enlighten walked away from the monasteries like Abhayagiriya, Mahaviharaya and Jethawanaya. They were more concerned to distribute the Buddhism, writing books and inscriptions, constructions and other material activities. This background generated conflict between monks and rulers then numbers of problems flew to the temples to avoid meditation and to be reached to the nibbana.
The second group of the temple totally concerned to build mind power and to be attend to nibbana. They were lived in the mountain and forests where people were less used. Normally, this kind of monasteries located far from the urban area also was not to closed with ruling systems, even they were tried to be away from villages too.
Those type of temples which explained above, appeared even first stage of the Buddhism in Sri Lanka. The main monasteries named Mahavihara, Abhayagiriya and Mihinthalaya which was played main role in kingdom of Anuradhapura era as the temples in the settlement, Ritigala, Arankale, Manakanda and Rajagala forest monasteries were main forest temple or the main meditations temple in the same era. Although, there was two type of temples, the monks were lived in both places. According to their wish and need they were changed to both places. But some of monks lived only in the forest monasteries and they were engaged with only meditations. The main aim was to enlighten and stop the rebirth.
Rajagala is the one of very important meditation monastery located in forest which was situated in very far from human settlements as well as from the political sector. There are very interesting stories about Rajagala monastery. According to those stories there were five hundred arhath monks in the complex. There are more than fifty caves and numbers of buildings in the site, therefore, the amount of monks is believable. Although, the monastery was located very far from the capital, the royal patronage is received over several centuries. Since kingdom of Anuradhapura, Rajagala is the biggest monastery complex in Sri Lanka. The calm environment is an essential thing for the meditation not only that natural beauty but also distance from populated areas had been make favorable environment for monks to be in concentrated mind. The place was ideal for the keep of lifestyle as mentioned in Vinaya. The ancient record named Visuddimagga has provided guidelines for a meditation life and highlighted the impotence of forest living, including the rejection of popular monasticism (Wijeysuriya 1998:42-43).
Natural Resources in Rajagala
Rajagala monastery has rich natural water source which flew over year. Also there is a man-made tank and natural ponds on the rock. Two of stone bowls had used to store drinking water that collected from natural stream. The stream is still offering water to the site. There are another several streams which activating in the rainy season and another few months. There are more than fifty natural caves in the site to be used as residence for monks. The site is rich with raw materials for the various kinds of constructions. Two pathways for the top of mountain are very difficult creature because they needed to discourage and limit of the visitors. There are numbers of fruits, yams, nuts and other natural resources to be used for monks over the forest. Somehow, the difficulties were not a barrier to look after monks in the meditation complex. The ruins of refectory hall in the site are explaining the richness and capability to bear five hundreds of arhath monks. On the other hand, the forest temples of Sri Lanka having high attention of the Buddhist. The food time table of above all temples are fill without a space. The arhathsociety in Rajagala had made influence to the island and gets more attention of king and royalties as well as public. That is why they received the relic of arhathMahinda who was the son of great king Asoka as well as the person who led the Baddish mission to Sri Lanka. Although, he led the Buddhismission over the island there is not any stupa (pagoda) except in Rajagala. Because Rajagala played very significant role in the kingdom of Anuradhapura.
Rajagala Buddhist monastery is the main meditation center where lived numbers of arhath monks in the island with having respect of king and public. The complex was important with favorable environment for the meditation and keep up the simple lifestyle that need to be enlightened for the stop of next birth. After two thousand and two hundred years later, still Rajagal is appearing as a meditation center for the public. The project of Rajagala now is preparing logistic for reestablish an international meditation center in Rajagala monastery area.
Deepavamsa, (1970) Ed. GanawimalaKirealle, Colombo.
Godakumbura C.E. (1964). Administration Report of the Archaeological Commissioner Report, Government Press
Godakumbura C.E. (1965). Administration Report of the Archaeological Commissioner Report, Government Press.
Hettiarachchi.(2014). Unpublish inscription of king Buddhadasa, Vidarani Society of History and Archaeology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura.
Kannangara (2014).Ariyakaraviharaya, Vidarani Society of History and Archaeology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura.
Kapukotuwa A. (2017), Rajagala, Sandesa Publishing, Padukka.
Mahavamsa, (1946) Ed. Sumangalathero and DevarakshithaBatuwanthudawe, Colombo.
Paranavithana S. (1970), Inscription of Ceylon, vol.i, Archaeology survey of Ceylon, Department of Archaeology, Sri Lanka.
Rajagala Annual Report, 2013-2015, Rajagala Archaeological Project, Ampara.
jesuriya, G. (1998). Buddhist Meditation Monasteries of Ancient Sri Lanka, Department of Archaeology, C
 ,2 Department of History and Archaeology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Sri Lanka